cover
Contact Name
-
Contact Email
-
Phone
-
Journal Mail Official
jmedscie@ugm.ac.id
Editorial Address
-
Location
Kab. sleman,
Daerah istimewa yogyakarta
INDONESIA
Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran
ISSN : -     EISSN : -     DOI : -
Core Subject : Health,
Arjuna Subject : -
Articles 30 Documents
Search results for , issue "Vol 43, No 02 (2011)" : 30 Documents clear
Micro-vascular surgery in fingertip injury treatment: Case report Chaula Sukasah, Rosadi Seswandhana Teddy OH Prasetyono
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 43, No 02 (2011)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (189.725 KB)

Abstract

A high priority for fingertip injury reconstruction is the restoration of skin cover to protect underlying bone, tendon,and nerve structures. Other priorities are to maintain or maximize sensibility, preserve digit length, and minimizecosmetic deformity. Because it is so highly visible, though, the appearance of the reconstructed digit should be asnormal as possible. Therefore, microvascular surgery has an important role in management of fingertip injuries togive a normal shape of the digit. In this case, a clinical experience using microvascular surgery in the treatment offingertip injury was reported. In early 2007, there were two fingertip injury cases which were reconstructed usingmicrovascular surgery modality. The first case was a 34 years old male who had defect in soft tissue of the fourthfinger in his right hand caused by pressed machine. We performed elective wound reconstruction by transferring theskin and soft tissue freely (free pulp transfer) along with the vasculatures taken from fibular side of great toe in theright foot. Revascularization was performed by connecting deep plantar artery/vein with common digital artery/veinat the injured digit. The second case, was a 29 years old female with clean-cut amputation of the distal part of thethird finger in the right hand (Allen’s type IV). We performed replantation in the first 16 hours after injury. Wereanastomosed the ulnar side of digital artery only without vein and nerve reanastomosis. To avoid the distal edema,we did not perform any skin suture and let the oozing from the vein backflow. In both cases, we have excellentappearance result, moderate usefulness of the finger, but still poor in sensibility.Key words: clinical experiences - fingertip injury - soft tissue defect - clean cut amputation - microvascular surgery- free pulp transfer - replantation.
A deterministic and stochastic approach to analyze carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in rats Ngadikun, Ngadikun
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 43, No 02 (2011)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (232.048 KB)

Abstract

A new spectrometrical method was developed to determine a marker for liver damage. The aims of this study wasto investigate the pattern of cellular interaction in EDTA-blood spectrometrically in rats that induced by carbontetrachloride (CCl4). Eight of white male rats (Rattus norvegicus L), aged of 2 months with body weight of 160-210g were divided into two groups with 4 rats in each group. The first group as control were not fed and the secondgroup as treatment were fed with 0.1 mL/kgBW CCl4 for 21 weeks. At the end of the experiment, rats were fastedovernight, 3.0 mL of blood was drawn from the vena orbitalis for spectrometrical and biochemical estimation. Ratswere then sacrificed and the liver tissue was used for histological assessment. All data were analyzed with t-test.Histopathological studies of treated group showed the damage of the liver cells compared with control group. Theresults showed no significant difference in ALT (p = 0.12) and AST (p = 0.19) but significant difference in AST/ALT ratio (p = 0.01) between 2 groups was observed. The deterministic and stochastic approaches showed nosignificant differences in k7 (p = 0.11) but significant difference in k6 (p = 0.00) and k8 (p = 0.00). It wasconcluded that the combination of deterministic and stochastic approaches can be used to determine a marker forliver damage.Key words : CCl4-induced liver injury – dendrogram – deterministic - stochastic approach - non-functional plasmaenzymes - Rattus norvegicus.
α-Lipoic acid can not prevent effet on cell viability, collagen synthesis inhibition, collagen degradation induction in ultraviolet A irradiated human fibroblast cell Yohanes Widodo Wirohadidjojo, Putu Dyah Ayu Saraswati Soedirman Sastrodiprodjo
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 43, No 02 (2011)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (222.187 KB)

Abstract

Ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation on human skin can generate free radical and stimulate matrix metalloproteinaseproduction resulting in collagen degradation and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) inhibition. It causes synthesiscollagen inhibition and induces cell death. α-Lipoic acid (ALA) is an universal antioxidant and a powerful scavengerof free radicals. In this study we investigated the effect of ALA on viability, collagen synthesis and degradation inUVA irradiated human fibroblasts. Normal human skin fibroblasts cell culture were irradiated with UVA for threetimes with each dose of 3000 mJ/cm2 UVA. α-Lipoic acid in various concentration was added to the culturefollowing UVA irradiation and incubated for 48 hours. The cell viability was determined by MTT-assay while collagensynthesis and degradation were determined by Sirius red binding assay. The difference of cell viability and collagensynthesis and degradation between fibroblasts cell after and without UVA irradiation were analyzed using paired-ttest with 95% confidence interval (p<0.05). The results showed that UVA irradiation decreased cell viability,inhibited collagen synthesis and induced collagen degradation in fibroblasts cell. However, ALA was not sufficient toincrease viability, to increase collagen synthesis and to inhibit collagen degradation in fibroblasts cell due to UVAirradiation. In conclusion, ALA can not prevent UVA irradiation effect on human skin fibroblasts cell.Key words: UVA – irradiation - human skin fibroblasts – antioxidants – α-lipoic acid
Polymorphisms of organic cation transporter 1 and the drugs response Perwitasari, Dyah Aryani
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 43, No 02 (2011)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (155.044 KB)

Abstract

Polymorphisms of proteins which have an important role in drug transport, metabolism, and disposition in the bodycould affect the drugs efficacy and toxicity. The organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1), encoded by SLC22A1 gene,has been known as one of the polyspecific protein transporters which could affect some of the cationic drugresponse such as metformin, levodopa and imatinib. However, the findings of many studies an association of OCT1polymorphisms and drug response both in Caucasian and Asian were still inconsistent. Moreover, this study’s topicin Asians was still uncommon. This review was aimed to explore the polymorphisms of OCT 1 in Asians and Caucasiansand to find the challenges of the next studies in Asians. The articles about OCT1 polymorphisms were searched inthe PubMed with the keywords; OCT1 or SLC22A1, polymorphisms. There were ten articles of OCT1 polymorphismswhich are related to the drug response and most of the studies were performed in Caucasian subjects. In Caucasians,the rs622342 variant might associated with the response of metformin and levodopa. Moreover, the R61C and420del variants still showed the inconsistent findings associated with metformin response. The non-synonymousvariants which were found in Caucasians were not found in Asian. However, the new non-synonymous variantswere found in Japanese, Chinese, Indian and Korean population and some of them were associated with the metforminresponse. The recent findings found in Caucasians cancer patients, were related to the association of non-synonymousvariants haplotype and the 5-Hydroxytriptamine Receptor Antagonists drug response. The inconsistent results ofOCT1 polymorphisms studies could be related to the study’s sample size and design of the studies. Further studieswhich exploring the association of OCT1 polymorphisms and drug pharmacokinetic profiles and/or drug response,which were adjusted by genetic variants of proteins involved in drug tansport, metabolism and disposition are stillneeded in both Caucasians and Asians. Additional large studies also considering non-genetic risk factors are warranted,to implement the results of the various studies into clinical practice.Key words: OCT1- polymorphisms – Asians – Caucasians - drug response
α-Lipoic acid inhibit the decrease of collagen deposition in ultravioled B-irradiated cultured normal human skin fibroblasts cell culture Yohanes Widodo Wirohadidjojo, Arum Krismi Satiti Retno Pudjiati
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 43, No 02 (2011)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (170.465 KB)

Abstract

Repeated ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation on human skin has been considered to be responsible in premature agingprocess because UVB has been proved to inhibit collagen deposition and accelerates collagen degradation. Clinicalstudies showed that topical usage of 5% α-lipoic acid (ALA) improved the clinical appearance of photoaged skin.However, the effect of ALA on collagen deposition and degradation in UVB-irradiated normal human skin fibroblastsculture has not been reported. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of ALA on collagen deposition anddegradation in UVB-irradiated cultured normal human skin fibroblasts. Culture of normal human skin fibroblasts weretreated with 0, 125, 250, 500 μM ALA diluted in complete Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM) andirradiated with 300 mJ/cm2 UVB. The mean collagen deposition and degradation’s level were measured by Siriusred assay and read with spectrophotometer at λ 550 nm. Mean difference of collagen deposition as expressed byoptical density (OD) between normal human skin fibroblasts cell after UVB irradiation and without UVB irradiationwas analyzed by Wilcoxon signed-ranks test and Friedman test, while mean difference collagen degradation wasanalyzed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t test with 95% confidence level (p<0.05). Theresults showed that ALA 125 μM inhibited the decrease of collagen deposition significantly (p<0.05), though higherconcentrations did not. However, ALA did not inhibit collagen degradation increment (p>0.05). In conclusion, ALAinhibited the decrease of collagen deposition, but did not inhibit collagen degradation in UVB-irradiated normalhuman skin fibroblasts culture.Key words: α-lipoic acid - collagen - human skin - fibroblasts – UVB - irradiation
Assessment of the application level of radiation protection and awareness of radiation safety regulations among the radiographers at Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia Ahmad Hamim Sadewa, Ahmad Rafiq Mohammad Abu Arrah Arif Faisal
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 43, No 02 (2011)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (185.467 KB)

Abstract

A strong relation between cancers and radiation exposure has been reported. Radiation may damage DNA in thecell. Therefore, radiation protection program must be applied in the radiology department. Morover, the radiographershould have high level of awareness and risk assessment for radiation. Personal radiation monitoring is one of themain radiation protection, especially for pregnant worker and her fetus. This study was conducted to evaluate theapplication, awareness and risk assessment levels of radiation protection among radiographers at hospitals inYogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia. This was a descriptive study, applying a cross sectional survey at hospitals inYogyakarta. The subjects were radiographers of both governmental and private hospitals. There were 101 respondentsfrom a total of 124 radiographers. The data obtained were tabulated and analyzed using Chi Square test. The studyrevealed that 69.3% of the respondents had low application level of radiation protection, 19.8% did not know themeaning of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable), 50.5% were not aware of Inverse Square Law. The studyalso reported that 36.6% of the respondents did not know the amount of radiation that entered their body last year,61.4% of radiographers thought that the risk assessment of radiation was not enough, 18.8% of radiographerswere never use any radiation monitoring device, and 90.1% stated that there was no additional protection orradiation monitoring to the pregnant radiographer. However, there were no significant differences between durationof working, type of imaging modality, academic level, and training course for radiation protection. In conclusion,there was no difference in the application, awareness, and risk assessment levels of radiation protection among theradiographers at hospital in Yogyakarta Special Region between duration of working, type of medical imaging modality,academic level, and training on radiation protection. In addition, the application, awareness, and risk assessmentlevels of radiation protection were not sufficient.Key words: radiation protection – ALARA – radiographer – hospital – risk assessment
Aldose reductase genetic polymorphism is a risk factor of diabetics retinopathy among type 2 diabetes mellitus in Yogyakarta, Indonesia Tasmini, Jujuk Anton Cahyono Ahmad Hamim Sadewa
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 43, No 02 (2011)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (209.538 KB)

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance, due toinsulin resistance, insulin deficiency, or both. Diabetics retinopathy (DR) is a DM complication due to retinal abnormality,that causes vision reduction and even blindness. The association between DR and aldose reductase C-106T (ALR C-106T) gene polymorphism has been reported in previous studies. This genetic polymorphism increases the sorbitollevel inside erythrocyte and pericyte in the retinal membrane that leads to weakness of retinal capillary vessel andmicroaneurism. The aim of this study was to know the presence of ALR C-106T gene polymorphism and its frequencydistribution among diabetics Javanese patients in Dr. Sardjito General Hospital Yogyakarta, Indonesia. In addition,this study also aimed to analyze the difference of erythrocytes osmotic fragility (EOF) among ALR genotypes in type2 diabetics patients with DR and without DR and to analyze whether ALR genetic polymorphism is a risk factor ofDR in type 2 diabetic patients. This was a case control study that involved 40 diabetics patients with DR as case and40 diabetics patients without DR as control groups. The C-106T ALR gene polymorphism was determined bypolymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) method. Erythrocytes osmoticfragility was analyzed using spectrophotometer. Genotype and allele distributions were analyzed using x2 and otherdata were analyzed using independent t-test and Mann-Whitney, with p<0.05 was considered as significantlydifferent. The results showed that in type 2 diabetics patients with DR, 33 patients (82.5%) were CC homozygoteindividuals and 7 patients (17.5%) were CT heterozygote individuals. In type 2 diabetics patients without DR, 27patients (67.5%) were CC homozygote individuals and 13 patients (32.5 %) were CT heterozygote individuals. Thegenotype and allele distributions were not significantly different between two groups (p=0.121 for genotype,p=0.151 for allele). Odds Ratio of genotype was 2.270 while allele was 2.023. Erythrocytes osmotic fragility of CCgenotype was higher than CT genotype (p=0.047). In conclusion, there was no significant difference between CCand CT genotype distribution among type 2 diabetics patients with and without DR. Erythrocyte osmotic fragility ofCC genotype was higher than CT genotype. C-106T gene polymorphism was a risk factor of DR in type 2 diabeticpatients.Key words : ALR genes – polymorphism - type 2 DM - diabetic retinopathy - erythrocytes osmotic fragility
The study of fauna and vectorial competency of mosquito (Diptera:Culicidae) at Satu’un Village, Muara Uya Subdistrict, Tabalong District, South Kalimantan Province Mahardika A.W, Puspawati Tri Baskoro T. Satoto
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 43, No 02 (2011)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (201.31 KB)

Abstract

In Indonesia, mosquito-transmitted diseases such as malaria, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), and filariasis, stillbecome main public health problems. Mosquito species which usually act as disease vector are Aedes sp, Culex sp,Anopheles sp and Mansonia sp. The aim of this study was to comprehend the mosquito fauna, bionomical and vectorcompetence of Aedes sp, Culex sp, Anopheles sp and Mansonia sp at Santu’un Village, Muara Uya Subdistrict,Tabalong District, South Kalimantan Province. Man Biting method using aspirator was used to capture mosquitoes.Mosquito dissection, ELISA and immunohistochemistry were performed to find microfilaria larvae, sporozoit Sp. ofPlasmodium and dengue virus, respectively. The results showed that Cx.quinquefaciatus, Cx.tritaeniorhyncus, Cxpipiens and Cx.gelidus were exophagic. Culex quinquefaciatus and Cx.tritaeniorhyncus biting activity was began at7 – 8 pm with their biting rate were 102.5 and 44.5 mosquitoes/person/night, respectively. Anopheles umbrosuswas endophagic. Its biting activity peaked at 8 – 9 pm with its biting rate was 0.5 mosquito/person/night. Meanwhile,An. nigerimus and An.kochi were exophagic. The biting activity of An.nigerimus peaked at 8 – 9 pm with its bitingrate was 0.5 mosquito/person/night. Anopheles kochi biting activity peaked at 6 – 7 pm with its biting rate was 1.5mosquito/person/night. Aedes albopictus was found at 6 - 7 pm with its biting rate was 2.5 mosquitoes/person/night.Mansonia bonea was exophagic. Its biting activity peaked at 11 – 12 pm with its biting rate was 2 mosquitoes/person/night. The average temperature and humidity of this study were 26.14 ± 0.30o and 94.60 ± 0.48%,respectively. Culex sp. usually rested inside the house in the morning. The breeding places of mosquitoes werepuddle of water near house, water container, old/unused vehicles, footprint, and water tank. The water temperatureof the breeding place was 25 oC. Its pH was 5.6 with 0 per mil salinity. This study did not found the vector ofmalaria, DHF, and filariasis. In conclusion, four genera of mosquitoes i.e. Culex, Anopheles, Aedes and Mansoniawere found at Santu’un Village. However, vectors of malaria, DHF and filariasis were not found at this village.Key words : Culex - Anopheles - Aedes – Mansonia - fauna - vector
Quality of life epilepsy in childhood: Comparison between well-controlled epilepsy and non epilepsy Soeroyo Machfudz, Fita Wirastuti Suryono Yudha Patria
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 43, No 02 (2011)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (188.668 KB)

Abstract

Quality of life is an important parameter in assessing the efficacy of medical interventions. Chronic diseases such asepilepsy, have a significant impact on quality of life. Childhood epilepsy is often associated with low achievement inschool, physical limitations, and disturbed social functions. The purpose of this study was to compare the quality oflife of well-controlled epileptic children with non epileptic children. This research was conducted with cross-sectionalstudy design with respondents aged 5-18 years old. All respondents were well-controlled epileptic and non epilepticchildren who were admitted to the Pediatric Polyclinic of Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia in theperiod of March until June 2010. Measurement of quality of life was conducted by filling out the questionnairePediatrics Quality of Life (PedsQL) that directly obtained from the children who were accompanied by their parent.Lower total score of PedsQL showed better quality of life. The results showed that mean total score of PedsQL onwell-controlled epileptic children (38.31±1.6) was higher than non epileptic children (8.84±0.90). Prevalence ratioof controlled epileptic children was 2.69 (95% CI: 2.01-3.58). In conclusion, well-controlled epileptic children hadlower quality of life than non epileptic children. The factors that affect quality of life of well-controlled epilepticchildren were duration of suffering from epilepsy and age at diagnosis of epilepsy.Key words: quality of life – well-controlled epileptic children - PedsQL – physical function – emotional functionsocialfunction
Agreement between pediatrician and trained paramedic in the assessment of gestational age among newborns using New Ballard Scored Tunjung Wibowo, Henky Sulistyo Djauhar Ismail
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 43, No 02 (2011)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (130.683 KB)

Abstract

Accurate gestational age assessment is important in newborn examination to determine further management. Oneof methods to estimate newborn gestation is New Ballard Score (NBS). With limited number of pediatrician especiallyin remote areas, it is expected trained paramedic will be able to perform NBS examination properly. The aim of thisstudy was to assess whether there is agreement between pediatricians and trained paramedics in determiningnewborn gestational age using NBS. This was a cross sectional study. Ballard scoring was performed by pediatriciansand trained paramedics in Dentatama Mother and Child Hospital, Sragen Distric, Central Java, Indonesia fromFebruary-May 2008. Statistical analysis was performed using intraclass correlation. This study was performed in175 newborns those consisted of 55.4% males and 44.6% females. From those newborns, 30.3% were deliveredby caesarian section, and 10.3% were premature baby. Majority of Ballard score examination (69.7%) was performedin 2nd day. According to intraclass correlation, there was a very strong correlation agreement between pediatriciansand trained paramedics (r=0.925 and p<0.05). The result of Ballard score examination that close to gold standardthose which were performed at 48-96 hours of age (r=0.993 and p<0.05). In conclusion, there was a goodagreement between pediatricians and trained paramedics in assessing newborn gestational age using NBS.Key words: Ballard score - trained paramedic - newborn – pedriatician - hospital

Page 1 of 3 | Total Record : 30


Filter by Year

2011 2011


Filter By Issues
All Issue Vol 52, No 3 (2020): Special Issue: COVID-19 Vol 52, No 3 (2020) Vol 52, No 2 (2020) Vol 52, No 1 (2020) Vol 51, No 4 (2019) Vol 51, No 3 (2019) Vol 51, No 2 (2019) Vol 51, No 1 (2019) Vol 50, No 4 (2018) Vol 50, No 3 (2018) Vol 50, No 2 (2018) Vol 50, No 1 (2018): SUPPLEMENT Vol 50, No 1 (2018) Vol 49, No 4 (2017) Vol 49, No 3 (2017) Vol 49, No 2 (2017) Vol 49, No 1 (2017) Vol 48, No 4 (2016): SUPPLEMENT Vol 48, No 4 (2016) Vol 48, No 3 (2016) Vol 48, No 2 (2016) Vol 48, No 1 (2016) Vol 47, No 4 (2015) Vol 47, No 3 (2015) Vol 47, No 2 (2015) Vol 47, No 01 (2015) Vol 46, No 04 (2014) Vol 46, No 03 (2014) Vol 46, No 02 (2014) Vol 46, No 01 (2014) Vol 46, No 04 (2014) Vol 46, No 03 (2014) Vol 46, No 02 (2014) Vol 46, No 01 (2014) Vol 45, No 04 (2013) Vol 45, No 03 (2013) Vol 45, No 02 (2013) Vol 45, No 01 (2013) Vol 45, No 04 (2013) Vol 45, No 03 (2013) Vol 45, No 02 (2013) Vol 45, No 01 (2013) Vol 44, No 02 (2012) Vol 44, No 01 (2012) Vol 44, No 02 (2012) Vol 44, No 01 (2012) Vol 43, No 02 (2011) Vol 43, No 01 (2011) Vol 43, No 02 (2011) Vol 43, No 01 (2011) Vol 42, No 01 (2010) Vol 42, No 01 (2010) Vol 41, No 04 (2009) Vol 41, No 03 (2009) Vol 41, No 02 (2009) Vol 41, No 01 (2009) Vol 41, No 04 (2009) Vol 41, No 03 (2009) Vol 41, No 02 (2009) Vol 41, No 01 (2009) Vol 40, No 04 (2008) Vol 40, No 03 (2008) Vol 40, No 02 (2008) Vol 40, No 01 (2008) Vol 40, No 04 (2008) Vol 40, No 03 (2008) Vol 40, No 02 (2008) Vol 40, No 01 (2008) Vol 39, No 04 (2007) Vol 39, No 03 (2007) Vol 39, No 02 (2007) Vol 39, No 01 (2007) Vol 39, No 04 (2007) Vol 39, No 03 (2007) Vol 39, No 02 (2007) Vol 39, No 01 (2007) Vol 38, No 04 (2006) Vol 38, No 01 (2006) Vol 37, No 04 (2005) Vol 37, No 03 (2005) Vol 37, No 02 (2005) Vol 37, No 01 (2005) Vol 37, No 04 (2005) Vol 37, No 03 (2005) Vol 37, No 02 (2005) Vol 37, No 01 (2005) Vol 36, No 4 (2004) Vol 36, No 3 (2004) Vol 36, No 2 (2004) Vol 36, No 1 (2004) Vol 36, No 4 (2004) Vol 36, No 3 (2004) Vol 36, No 2 (2004) Vol 36, No 1 (2004) Vol 35, No 4 (2003) Vol 35, No 3 (2003) Vol 35, No 2 (2003) Vol 35, No 4 (2003) Vol 35, No 3 (2003) Vol 35, No 2 (2003) Vol 34, No 04 (2002) Vol 34, No 03 (2002) Vol 34, No 02 (2002) Vol 34, No 01 (2002) Vol 34, No 04 (2002) Vol 34, No 03 (2002) Vol 34, No 02 (2002) Vol 34, No 01 (2002) Vol 33, No 04 (2001) Vol 33, No 03 (2001) Vol 33, No 02 (2001) Vol 33, No 04 (2001) Vol 33, No 03 (2001) Vol 33, No 02 (2001) Vol 31, No 04 (1999) Vol 31, No 03 (1999) Vol 31, No 02 (1999) Vol 31, No 01 (1999) Vol 31, No 04 (1999) Vol 31, No 03 (1999) Vol 31, No 02 (1999) Vol 31, No 01 (1999) Vol 30, No 03 (1998) Vol 30, No 02 (1998) Vol 30, No 01 (1998) Vol 30, No 03 (1998) Vol 30, No 02 (1998) Vol 30, No 01 (1998) Vol 29, No 04 (1997) Vol 29, No 03 (1997) Vol 29, No 02 (1997) Vol 29, No 01 (1997) Vol 29, No 04 (1997) Vol 29, No 03 (1997) Vol 29, No 02 (1997) Vol 29, No 01 (1997) Vol 28, No 04 (1996) Vol 28, No 03 (1996) Vol 28, No 02 (1996) Vol 28, No 01 (1996) Vol 28, No 04 (1996) Vol 28, No 03 (1996) Vol 28, No 02 (1996) Vol 28, No 01 (1996) Vol 27, No 04 (1995) Vol 27, No 03 (1995) Vol 27, No 02 (1995) Vol 27, No 01 (1995) Vol 27, No 04 (1995) Vol 27, No 03 (1995) Vol 27, No 02 (1995) Vol 27, No 01 (1995) Vol 26, No 03 (1994) Vol 26, No 02 (1994) Vol 26, No 01 (1994) Vol 26, No 03 (1994) Vol 26, No 02 (1994) Vol 26, No 01 (1994) Vol 25, No 04 (1993) Vol 25, No 03 (1993) Vol 25, No 02 (1993) Vol 25, No 01 (1993) Vol 25, No 04 (1993) Vol 25, No 03 (1993) Vol 25, No 02 (1993) Vol 25, No 01 (1993) Vol 24, No 04 (1992) Vol 24, No 03 (1992) Vol 24, No 02 (1992) Vol 24, No 01 (1992) Vol 24, No 04 (1992) Vol 24, No 03 (1992) Vol 24, No 02 (1992) Vol 24, No 01 (1992) Vol 23, No 04 (1991) Vol 23, No 03 (1991) Vol 23, No 02 (1991) Vol 23, No 01 (1991) Vol 23, No 04 (1991) Vol 23, No 03 (1991) Vol 23, No 02 (1991) Vol 23, No 01 (1991) Vol 22, No 04 (1990) Vol 22, No 03 (1990) Vol 22, No 02 (1990) Vol 22, No 01 (1990) Vol 22, No 04 (1990) Vol 22, No 03 (1990) Vol 22, No 02 (1990) Vol 22, No 01 (1990) Vol 21, No 04 (1989) Vol 21, No 03 (1989) Vol 21, No 02 (1989) Vol 21, No 01 (1989) Vol 21, No 04 (1989) Vol 21, No 03 (1989) Vol 21, No 02 (1989) Vol 21, No 01 (1989) Vol 20, No 04 (1988) Vol 20, No 03 (1988) Vol 20, No 02 (1988) Vol 20, No 01 (1988) Vol 20, No 04 (1988) Vol 20, No 03 (1988) Vol 20, No 02 (1988) Vol 20, No 01 (1988) Vol 19, No 04 (1987) Vol 19, No 03 (1987) Vol 19, No 02 (1987) Vol 19, No 01 (1987) Vol 19, No 04 (1987) Vol 19, No 03 (1987) Vol 19, No 02 (1987) Vol 19, No 01 (1987) Vol 18, No 04 (1986) Vol 18, No 03 (1986) Vol 18, No 02 (1986) Vol 18, No 01 (1986) Vol 18, No 04 (1986) Vol 18, No 03 (1986) Vol 18, No 02 (1986) Vol 18, No 01 (1986) Vol 17, No 03 (1985) Vol 17, No 02 (1985) Vol 17, No 01 (1985) Vol 17, No 03 (1985) Vol 17, No 02 (1985) Vol 17, No 01 (1985) Vol 16, No 04 (1984) Vol 16, No 02 (1984) Vol 16, No 01 (1984) Vol 16, No 04 (1984) Vol 16, No 02 (1984) Vol 16, No 01 (1984) Vol 15, No 03 (1983) Vol 15, No 02 (1983) Vol 15, No 03 (1983) Vol 15, No 02 (1983) Vol 13, No 04 (1981) Vol 13, No 03 (1981) Vol 13, No 02 (1981) Vol 13, No 01 (1981) Vol 13, No 04 (1981) Vol 13, No 03 (1981) Vol 13, No 02 (1981) Vol 13, No 01 (1981) Vol 12, No 04 (1980) Vol 12, No 03 (1980) Vol 12, No 02 (1980) Vol 12, No 01 (1980) Vol 12, No 04 (1980) Vol 12, No 03 (1980) Vol 12, No 02 (1980) Vol 12, No 01 (1980) Vol 10, No 04 (1978) Vol 10, No 03 (1978) Vol 10, No 02 (1978) Vol 10, No 01 (1978) Vol 10, No 04 (1978) Vol 10, No 03 (1978) Vol 10, No 02 (1978) Vol 10, No 01 (1978) Vol 9, No 04 (1977) Vol 9, No 03 (1977) Vol 9, No 02 (1977) Vol 9, No 01 (1977) Vol 9, No 04 (1977) Vol 9, No 03 (1977) Vol 9, No 02 (1977) Vol 9, No 01 (1977) Vol 8, No 04 (1976) Vol 8, No 03 (1976) Vol 8, No 02 (1976) Vol 8, No 01 (1976) Vol 8, No 04 (1976) Vol 8, No 03 (1976) Vol 8, No 02 (1976) Vol 8, No 01 (1976) Vol 7, No 04 (1975) Vol 7, No 03 (1975) Vol 7, No 02 (1975) Vol 7, No 01 (1975) Vol 7, No 04 (1975) Vol 7, No 03 (1975) Vol 7, No 02 (1975) Vol 7, No 01 (1975) Vol 6, No 04 (1974) Vol 6, No 03 (1974) Vol 6, No 02 (1974) Vol 6, No 01 (1974) Vol 6, No 04 (1974) Vol 6, No 03 (1974) Vol 6, No 02 (1974) Vol 6, No 01 (1974) Vol 5, No 04 (1973) Vol 5, No 03 (1973) Vol 5, No 02 (1973) Vol 5, No 01 (1973) Vol 5, No 04 (1973) Vol 5, No 03 (1973) Vol 5, No 02 (1973) Vol 5, No 01 (1973) More Issue