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Articles 32 Documents
Search results for , issue "Vol 44, No 02 (2012)" : 32 Documents clear
Candida albicans biofilm: formation and antifungal agents resistance Wibawa, Tri
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 44, No 02 (2012)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Candida sp are the most common fungal pathogens causing fatal health care associated infections.Among the genus of Candida, Candida albicans is the most frequent species isolated frompatients. The notorious C. albicans infection is the ability of this dimorphic fungus to formbiofilm. Biofilm has been pointed as a dynamic phenotypic switching in bacteria and fungi,which may result in higher morbidity and mortality in human beings. This review addresses thebasic explanation of biofilm formation which is characterized by the antifungal agents resistance.The factors that influence C. albicans biofim formation and antifungal agents resistance arediscussed.Key words: Candida sp – antifungal – resistance – biofilm - pathogenecity
Onset of menarche: differences between urban and rural community in Tangerang District, Banten Province, Indonesia Suryono Yudha Patria, Dewi Darmawati Sunartini Hapsara
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 44, No 02 (2012)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

The transition of physical and sexual maturation in becoming an adult occurs in adolescenceperiod. This transition runs in parallel with the development of cognitive, emotional, socialcultural and adaptation ability. Girls sexual maturity is marked by first menstruation (menarche)which is the most important phase of reproductive development. The relationship betweenmenarche and growth rate of body height is very close. The menarche occurs when the growthrate of the body height begins to decline. Many factors influence the onset of menarche i.e.physical activity, nutritional intake, socio economic and environmental conditions and availabilityof medical services. These factors vary between rural and urban area. Girls in urban area tend tohave modest life style compared with their counterpart in rural area. The purpose of this studywas to compare the onset of menarche of girls in urban and rural area, and to identify factorsthat influence the onset of menarche. This was a cross sectional study involving 220 girlsstudents of elementary school from both urban and rural area in Tangerang District, BantenProvince. The mean onset of menarche of all subjects was 11.46 ± 0.99 years, while the meanonset of menarche of girls who live in rural area (11.87±0.99 years) was significantly slowerthan girls who live in urban area (11.05±0.80 years) (p=0.01). The birth body weight and birthbody length, physical activity and environment condition significantly influenced the onset ofmenarche. The girls who live in urban areas had an earlier predictor factors to achieve for onsetof menarche than those who live in rural areas (OR: 3.34 [95% CI: 1.911 to 5.823] and aOR:2.95 [95% CI: 1.410 - 6.012]).Keywords: menarche - growth spurt - sexual maturity - urban - rural community
Multiple mini punch grafts for extensive ulcer: a case report Wirohadidjojo, Yohanes Widodo
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 44, No 02 (2012)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Multiple mini punch grafts is the placing of mini size of full thickness skins on to ulcer bed. Theyconsist of epidermal and dermal component composed with hair follicles and other skin appendiceswhere epidermal stem cells are located. The epidermal stem cells are the best source of epidermalcells in reconstruction of skin equivalent that is usually used for replacing classic split thicknessskin graft in recovering extensive ulcer. In this article, the application of multiple mini punchgrafts onto extensive ulcer is reported. A case of extensive ulcer was suffered by a 6-year-oldboy whose left foot is injured in a traffic accident. His toes had already been amputated bysurgeon but a classic skin graft failed to recover the ulcer. Multiple mini punch grafts had beenharvested from his inguinal and buttock skin and they were placed onto his ulcer. Pre and postmini punch grafting photographs were reviewed. After eight weeks, placed multiple mini punchtissues onto large ulcer reveals lateral extensions and more than 90% of epithelialization. Multiplemini punch grafts can be used as a method to cover large ulcer.Key words: mini punch grafts-large ulcer-epithelialization-epidermal-stem cells
Relation between participating in playgroup with child development Mei Neni Sitaresmi, Elsa Maimon Djauhar Ismail
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 44, No 02 (2012)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Playgroup is one of early education programs to promote child development. A cohort study found that early education program resulted in better social performance. However this study did not evaluate the influence of this program on child development. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether participating in playgroup relates to child development achievement. This was a cross sectional study conducted on children in Yogyakarta Special Region. The subjects were children in the first month of kindergarten. The child development was tested using Denver II. Other data were collected by questioners and filled by their parents. Chi-square test was used to analyze the factorsthat influenced the child development. One hundred and seventy two children participated in the study. It was found that the development achievement of children participating in playgroup were 3.2 times better than those not participating in playgroup (p=0.002; OR: 3.248; 95% CI: 1.558-6.774), whereas gender, education of parents, number of slibings, and birth weight were not associated with the child development achievement. In conclusion, joining the playgroup relates to the child achievement development.Keywords: playgroup - child development - Denver II test - kindergarten - education
Efficacy of ketamine gargle 40 mg and benzydamine HCl 0.075% in reducing post intubation sore throat Djayanti Sari, Eko Bambang Subekti MuhdarAbubakar
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 44, No 02 (2012)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Sore throat is a frequent complication in postoperative patients under general anesthesia whichis performed with endotracheal tube intubation. This effect occurs because of mucosal irritationand damage and airways inflammation due to a lubricant gel on laryngoscopy or an emphasis ofendotracheal tube cuff. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of ketamine 40 mggargle with benzydamine HCl 0.075% gargle in reducing post intubation of sore throat prior tothe insertion of endotracheal tube. A prospective randomized double blind controlled clinicaltrial enrolled patients aged 18-50 years with physical status of ASA I and II whounderwent elective surgery with general anesthesia in Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta.Subjects were divided into 2 groups. 50 patients of group A were given 30 mL ketamine gargle40 mg and 51 patients of group B were given 30mL benzydamine HCl gargle 0.075%. The sorethroat was measured whenever the patients were fully awake, 2 hours and 4 hours post-extubationwith Canbay score (no pain, mild pain, moderate pain and severe pain). There was a significantdifference (p<0.01) in sore throat incidence of both groups especially at fully awake and 2hours post-extubation; 20% in group A versus 66.7% in group B at fully awake and 16% ingroup A versus 58,8% in group B at 2 hours of post-extubation. However, there was not anysignificant difference in sore throat incidence of both groups at 4 hours post-extubation(p=0.394). In conclusion, giving ketamine gargle 40 mg 5 minutes before intubation is moreefficient in reducing sore throat after endotracheal tube-general anesthesia compared withbenzydamine HCl 0.075% at fully awake and 2 hours post-extubation.Keywords : endotracheal tube - sore throat - ketamine gargle - benzydamine HCl gargle
The effect of food supplementation on nutritional status of severemalnourishment children aged 12-59 months in Sleman District, Yogyakarta Special Region Soeroyo Machfudz, Ahmad Lubaid Endy Paryanto Prawirohartono
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 44, No 02 (2012)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Malnutrition and malnourishment are still big problems among children in Indonesia. Age between12 to 59 months is the most important and critical time periods for the physical and intelligencedevelopment of children. Therefore, the children should obtain a good health care and nutritionaccording to their needs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of foodsupplementation on the nutritional status of children in Sleman District, Yogyakarta SpecialRegion. This was a quasi experimental study involving 60 severe malnourishment children betweenthe age of 12-59 months from Sayegan Sub Districts. Body weight and height of the childrenwere measured before and after food supplementation. Food supplements were given for 100days. The outcome of this study was the change of nutritional status based on Z-score accordingto the Ministry of Health classification adopted from WHO-NCHS (World Health Organization-US National Center for Health Statistics) recommendations. According to Z score for weight-forage(WAZ), the food supplementation did not improve the nutritional status of children. Althoughthe nutritional status of 25.87% children increased and the mean of WAZ significantly increased1.04 to be -3.29 after supplementation (p<0.05), the mean of nutritional status of the childrenwas still the worst (WAZ <-3SD). According to Z score height-for-age (HAZ), foodsupplementation did not improve nutritional status of the children either. The mean of HAZbefore food supplementation (-2.53) was not signifantly different compared to after foodsupplementation (-2.45). Moreover, mean of nutritional status of the children after foodsupplementation was still short (HAZ <-2SD). According to Z score weight-for-height (WHZ),food supplementation improved the nutritional status in 86.21% children. The mean of WHZsignificantly increased 1.13 from -3.35 to be -2.22 after food supplementation (p<0.05) indicatingthe change of nutritional status from wasted (WHZ <-3SD) to thin (WHZ <-2SD to -3SD). Inconclusion, food supplementation on children aged 12-59 months succeeds to improve theirnutritional status according to WHZ.Keywords: poor family - nutritional status - children - severe malnourishment - Z-score
The risk factors of urinary tract infection among elementary school students in Sleman District, Yogyakarta Special Region Suryana Yudha Patria, Tonny Sadjimin, Arya Agustino Purba Pungky Ardhani
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 44, No 02 (2012)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the second commonest acterial infection in Indonesian children after respiratory tract infection. In order to establish early diagnosis of UTI, it is important to recognize the risk factors of UTI in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associationbetween circumcision, personal hygiene, environmental sanitation, nutritional status, parents’ educational level, socioeconomic status, constipation, and class attendance with incident of UTI and to determine its prevalence in elementary school students in Depok and Ngaglik SubDistricts, Sleman District, Yogyakarta Special Region. It was a case-control study using stratified random sampling. Controls were matched with case groups based on school grade and gender. An early screening of UTI using dipstick was conducted, and continued with urine culture toconfirm microorganims infection. The association between the risk factors and the incident of UTI was evaluated using a questionnaire for the students or their parents. Prevalence of UTI in elementary school students in Sleman District was 9.96% with pathogenic microorganisms namely Klebsiella (44.1%), Echerichia coli (31.2%), and Pseudomonas (24.7%). Circumcision (OR=8.00; 95%CI=2.115-193.91; p=0.039) was statistically significant as protective factor ofUTI. Furthermore, poor personal hygiene (aOR = 4.314; 95% CI = 2.202-8.451; p = 0.000) and poor environmental sanitation (aOR = 2.481; 95% CI = 1.264-4.872; p = 0.008) were the high risk factors of UTI, whereas lower socioeconomic status and lower educational level of theparents were not significant risk factors of UTI. Other factors i.e. poor/fair nutritional status, constipation and class attendance were not risk factors of UTI. In conclusion, the prevalence of UTI in elementary school students in Sleman District is 9.96%. Circumcision is a protectivefactor of UTI, whereas poor personal hygiene and poor environmental sanitation are proven as risk factors of UTI.Keywords: urinary tract infection - risk factors - protective factor - elementary school students- pathogenic microorganism
Polymorphism of vascular endhothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene insertion/ deletion -2549 as risk factor of diabetic retinophathy in Javanese patients with type 2 diabetes Maliyah Madiyan, Jems Kifen Roget Maay Ahmad Hamim Sadewa
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 44, No 02 (2012)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a visual disorder caused by the diabetic microvascular complications.Genetic polymorphism in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene plays an importanrole in the susceptibility of DR. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of thepolymorphism of VEGF gene insetion/deletion (I/D) -2549 with DR in Javanese type 2 diabetesmellitus (DM) patients. This was a case control study involving 40 Javanese type 2 DM patientswith DR as case subjects and 40 Javanese type 2 DM patients without DR as control subjects.Type 2 DM patients with DR were recruited from Eye Polyclinic, whereas type 2 DM patientswithout DR were recruited from Endocrine Polyclinic of Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta.Genotyping of VEGF gene I/D-2549 was conducted using PCR-RFLP method. Plasma VEGFlevels were measured using Enzym-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The genotype distributionof DD (67.5%) and the allele frequency of D (82.5%) in type 2 DM patients with DR was higherthan those without DR (27.5% for DD genotype and 56.3% for D allele). The OR of DD and IDgenotypes versus II genotype between type 2 DM patients with DR and without DR was 6.882(95%CI: 0.789-60.060; p=0.048), whereas OR for the D allele versus I allele between type 2 DMpatients with DR and without DR was 3.667 (95%CI: 1.773-3.667; p=0.000). The plasma VEGFlevels of DD genotype (92.16±49.73 pg/mL) were significantly higher than ID genotype(42.70±33.29 pg/mL) in type 2 DM patients (p=0.000). In conclusion, the polymorphism ofVEGF gene I/D -2549 is associated with DR in Javanese type 2 DM patients. The DD genotypeand D allele of the VEGF gene polymorphism are the risk factor of DR in those patients. Theassociation of the polymorphism of VEGF gene with DR may be explained with the high plasmaVEGF level.Keywords: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) - polymorphism - diabetes - retinopathy- Javanese patients
Sexual dysfunction in psoriasis patients: study on the relationship between disease severity and degree of stress due to prosiasis Sunardi Radiono, Indri Yulia Rahardani Retno Danarti
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 44, No 02 (2012)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Psoriasis is a chronic, systemic, and immune-mediated skin disease that can affect physical,psychological and social functions of patients leading to a significant impact on sexualdysfunction. The aim of study was to evaluate the relationship between disease severity anddegree of stress with sexual dysfunction in psoriasis patients. This was an observational studyusing case control design. Subjects were psoriasis vulgaris patients who visited SquamousDivision, Polyclinic of Department of Dermato-Venereology, Dr. Sardjito General Hospital/Facultyof Medicine Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta. Disease severity was assessed using psoriasisarea severity index (PASI), whereas sexual dysfunction was evaluated using arizona sexualexperience scale (ASEX) and Psoriasis-related psychological stress was assessed using psoriasislife stress inventory (PLSI). Among 93 patients of psoriasis, 38 patients (40.8%) suffered fromsexual dysfunction. Factors that influence the occurrence of sexual dysfunction in psoriasispatients were disease severity (p=0.00), psoriasis-related stress (p=0.00), disease onset (p=0.03),age (p=0.04) and joint pain (p=0.04). In conclusion, disease severity and degree of stress areassociated with sexual dysfunction on psoriasis patients.
Expression of receptor advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and histological picture of pancreatic -cells of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after yellow soybean powder suspension (Glycine max) administration Sri Kadarsih Soejono, Dominggos Gonsalves Sri Lestari Sulistyo
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 44, No 02 (2012)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is a multisystemic disease characterized by hyperglycemia due to defects ininsulin secretion and action, or both. Hyperglycemia is the most important factor in the onsetand progress of diabetic complications. Hyperglycemia increases the expression of receptor foradvanced glycosylation end products (RAGE) which leads to pancreatic -cells damage. Yellowsoybean (Glycine max) is reported to contain isoflavones which have various biological propertiesincluding antidiabetes. Dietary soybean can prevent the progression of diabetic complications.This study was conducted to investigate the effects of yellow soybean powder suspension onexpression of RAGE and pancreatic -cells damage of diabetic rats. Thirty streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Sprague Dawley male rats aged 11-12 weeks with body weight 200-250 g wereused in this study. The rats were divided into 5 groups with 6 rats in each group. Group 1 wasnon diabetic rats. Group 2 was diabetic rats without treatment. Group 3-5 were given yellowsoybean powder suspension of 400, 800 and 1600 mg/kg BW for four weeks, respectively. Atthe end of the experiment, pancreases tissues were removed for examination of RAGE expressionand pancreatic -cells. The results showed that yellow soybean powder suspension ingestionsignifantly decreased blood glucose level of diabetic rats toward normality (p<0.05). Moreover,the percentage of RAGE expression on Group 3 (50.01±2.75%) and Group 2 (53.03±4.02%)were not significantly different (p>0.05). Meanwhile, the percentage of RAGE expression onGroup 4 (42.43±4.08%) and Group 5 (40.62±3.42%) were significantly lower than Group 2(p<0.05). The percentage of pancreatic -cells on Group 2 (10.04±1.56%) was not significantlydifferent compared to Group 3 (8.61±0.81%) (p>0.05), whereas the percentage of pancreatic-cells in Group 4 (16.78±7.79%) and in Group 5 (22.03±11.51%) were significantly higherthan Group 2 (p<0.05). In conclusion, yellow soybean powder suspension can decrease RAGEexpression and prevent pancreatic -cells damage on STZ-induced diabetic rats.Keywords: pancreatic cells - Langerhans islets - streptozotocine - diabetic rats - soybeans

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