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Articles 6 Documents
Search results for , issue "Vol 47, No 01 (2015)" : 6 Documents clear
H-reflex amplitude depression as a marker of presynaptic inhibition in Painful Diabetic Neuropathy (PDN). Asmedi, Ahmad; Wibowo, Samekto; Meliala, Lucas
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 47, No 01 (2015)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (304.274 KB) | DOI: 10.19106/JMedSci004701201504

Abstract

ABSTRACTPainful Diabetic Neuropathy (PDN) is a common complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Disruption in presynaptic inhibition in dorsal horn of the spinal cord has been proposed as one of the pathomechanism of PDN. Previous research showed that presynaptic inhibition can be detected by H-reflex examination. The aim of this study was to know whether the reduction of presynaptic inhibition in spinal dorsal horn of PDN patients really exist, and detectable by H-reflex examination. It was cohort prospective involving 141 (58 men, 83 women) patients with DM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) between the ages of 40 and 61 years from several health facilities in Yogyakarta. All patients underwent clinical, laboratory and electrodiagnostic examination. Demographic, clinical and electrodiagnostic data were collected and analyzed. By survival analysis there were 25 new cases of PDN (12.12% cumulative incidence). Using survival Kaplan Meier analysis, the significant hazard ratio for PDN were 12.81 for median motor nerve amplitude, 5.74 for median nerve distal latency, 3.71 for median sensory nerve amplitude, 6.33 for median sensory latency, 3.4 for tibial nerve amplitude, 3.48 for tibial nerve distal latency, 2.29 for sural nerve amplitude, 4.47 for sural nerve latency, 3.99 for H-reflex latency, 5.88 for H-reflex amplitude, and 17.83 for Diabetic Neuropathy (DN) status. Using hazard proportional cox analysis, only H amplitude and DN status (DNS score) were significantly correlated with PDN (p= 0.026; hazard ratio = 15.450; CI 95%= 1.39 – 171.62 for H amplitude and p= 0.030; hazard ratio = 10.766; CI 95%=1.26 – 92.09 for DN status). This study showed that depression of H-reflex amplitude was correlated with the occurrence of PDN. This result proves that there was presynaptic inhibition process in PDN that manifests as low H-reflex amplitude.
Prognostic factors for constipation following primary surgery of anorectal malformations in Yogyakarta, Indonesia Marpaung, Willy Hardy; Rochadi, .
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 47, No 01 (2015)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (247.48 KB) | DOI: 10.19106/JMedSci004701201503

Abstract

ABSTRACT Anorectal Malformation (ARM) is a congenital malformation of the anorectal area, occur approximately once in every 5000 live births. There are several morbidities could occur after surgery in ARM. Constipation is the most common morbidity post-surgery in ARM. This study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic factors affecting constipation in postoperative anorectal malformation. This was a case control study involving 74 children who undergo surgery in Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta from 2008 to 2012. The prognostic factors are sex, type of ARM, age, type of ostomi, type of anoplasty operation, dehiscence of anoplasty, and anal dilatation. There were 41 (55.4%) male patients and 33 (44.6%) female patients in this study. The risk of constipation in the patients with high level ARM was lower than in low level ARM with an OR of 0.150 (95% CI=0.032 - 0.711; p=0.008). Abdominoperineal pullthrough had higher risk for constipation than non abdominoperineal pullthrough (PSARP and ASA) with p = 0.003. The constipation rate was also different between patients with and without dehiscence of anoplasty with an OR of 0.139 (95% CI=0.033 - 0.584; p=0.005). The gender, types of colostomy, types of colon for colostomy, age of primary operation, and frequency of anal dilatation did not affect the constipation rate. In conclusion, postoperative constipation is still a major problem in surgical for anorectal malformations in Yogyakarta. Types of anomaly, primary operative procedures, and dehiscence of anoplasty operation are the prognostic factors that affect the constipation in anorectal malformations.
The percentage of macrophage numbers in rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury Wicaksono, Satrio; Ghufron, Muhammad; Susilowati, Rina
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 47, No 01 (2015)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2044.327 KB) | DOI: 10.19106/JMedSci004701201501

Abstract

ABSTRACTExcessive accumulation of macrophages in sciatic nerve fascicles inhibits regeneration of peripheral nerves. The aim of this study is to determine the percentage of the macrophages inside and outside of the fascicles at the proximal, at the site of injury and at the distal segment of rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury. Thirty male 3 months age Wistar rats of 200-230 g were divided into sham-operation group and crush injury group. Termination was performed on day 3, 7, and 14 after crush injury. Immunohistochemical examination was done using anti CD68 antibody. Counting of immunopositive and immunonegative cells was done on three representative fields for extrafascicular and intrafascicular area of proximal, injury and distal segments. The data was presented as percentage of immunopositive cells. The percentage of the macrophages was significantly increased in crush injury group compared to the sham-operated group in all segments of the peripheral nerves. While the percentage of macrophages outside fascicle in all segments of sciatic nerve and within the fascicle in the proximal segment reached its peak on day 3, the percentage of macrophages within the fascicles at the site of injury and distal segments reached the peak later at day 7. In conclusions, accumulation of macrophages outside the nerve fascicles occurs at the beginning of the injury, and then followed later by the accumulation of macrophages within nerve fascicles
Evaluation of primary health workers training program to provide psychoeducation to family caregivers of persons with psychotic disorder Marchira, Carla Raymondalexas; Puspitasari, Warih Andan; Rochmawati, Ida; Mulyani, Siti
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 47, No 01 (2015)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (215.67 KB) | DOI: 10.19106/JMedSci004701201505

Abstract

ABTRACT Many persons suffering psychotic illnesses, such as schizophrenia, are largely untreated in low income countries. In these settings, most persons with severe mental illness live with their families. Thus, families play a particular critical role in determining whether a person with a psychotic illness will receive treatment and what the quality of treatment. Psychoeducation has proven to be extremely effective in helping families develop the knowledge and skills which is necessary to help their family members. Indonesia has a national policy to integrate the management of mental health problems into the primary health care system. However, in practice, such care does not implemented effectively. A preliminary study in primary health centers in two districts of Bantul and Gunung Kidul regency, Yogyakarta province, showed that there was very little or there is not any training for health care workers on diagnosis and treatment of psychotic disorder. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the training program for health workers in three primary health centers in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, to provide psychoeducation to family caregivers for persons with psychotic disorder. A quasi-experimental study with the approach of one group pre and posttest design was performed in this study. Fortythree health workers in 3 primary health centers in Bantul and Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta were trained every week for a month to provide psychoeducation to family caregivers who live with psychotic disorder patient. Result showed that the baseline score of knowledge of schizophrenia among health workers in 3 primary health centers in Bantul and Gunung Kidul before training were not significantly different (p=0.162). After the psychoeducation training program there were significantly different (p=0.003) of the score of knowledge of schizophrenia among health workers in 3 primary health care centers compared with before training. For conclusion, the training program to provide psychoeducation to family care providers of persons with psychotic disorder for primary health workers was effective to increase their knowledge of schizophrenia.
The characterization of NMR signal for blood pressure monitoring system and its testing Eka Jati, Bambang Murdaka; Kusminarto, .; Setio Utomo, Agung Bambang; Irawan, Bambang
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 47, No 01 (2015)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (590.863 KB) | DOI: 10.19106/JMedSci004701201502

Abstract

ABSTRACT A blood monitoring system based on NMR method has been designed on constructed. This set-up of equipment used magnetic permanent, radio frequency (RF), receiver coil (RC), function generator (FG), amplifier which included the filter, as well as the oscilloscope digital storage. The background of this research was based on the sensitivity of NMR signal. The signal must be separated from signals background. This method was done by adjusting the frequency on FG, which was connected to radio frequency (RF) coil, on empty sample. Subsequently, NMR signal was received by RC, and that signal could be shown on oscilloscope at resonance condition. The true frequency on NMR signal was Larmor frequency, and the other was background. The two variables of this experiment were the position of RF coil and the location temperature (20 up to 30oC). In conclusion, the resonance frequency of NMR signal (as Larmor frequency) was 4.7 MHz (at static magnetic field of 1,600 gauss) and it could be separated from background signals (3.4 and 6.2 MHz), and that signal was almost constant to room temperature. The equipment was used for sample testing. It gave systole/diastole data of 110/70 mmHg (on sphygmomanometer) that was similar to 17/9 mV (on NMR signal). ABSTRAK Telah dikembangkan alat pemantauan tekanan darah berdasar prinsip NMR.
The role of transporters on drug therapy Ngatidjan, .
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 47, No 01 (2015)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (257.145 KB) | DOI: 10.19106/JMedSci004701201506

Abstract

ABSTRACTPharmacodynamical studies showed that most drugs elicit their effects by acting on 3 kinds of protein molecules known as receptors, enzymes or transporters. Although their detail properties had not been explained for decades the roles of transporters in drug kinetics and dynamics has been well understood, even have been applied in the therapy. Transporters are classified into 2 major classes, the solute carriers (SLC) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) families. SLC transporters do not possess ATP binding site property as those of ABC transporters. SLC transporters consist of 3 SLC subfamilies i.e. organic cation transporters (OCTs), organic anion transporters (OATs) and organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs). In contrast, ABC transporters require ATP hydrolysis to transport substrate across cell membrane. Human ABC-transporters consist of ABCA1- 13, ABCB1-11, ABCC1-12, ABCD1-4, ABCE1, ABCF1-3 and ABCG1-8 subfamily. Although the originally funtion of transporter is to transport specific physiological substrate such as nutrient, hormone, cytokines, neurotransmitters and other physiological subtances across cell membrane the specificity is not restricted to each substrate. Drugs and other xenobiotics which have structural similarity to the physiological substrates are recognized and transported by the related transporters. The competition of them on transporters therefore may lead to the occurence of drug-drug interactions (DDI) or drugphysiological substrate interaction in the drug-kinetics phase. Many transporters located in the liver, intestinal and renal epithelial cell membranes involve in the transport of endogenous substance or xenobiotics including drugs play important roles as protective barrier. Since transporters also serve as the targets of drug action it is understood that transporters play important role in the pathogenesis of diseases as well as in the drug therapy of diseases.

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