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Articles 27 Documents
Search results for , issue "Vol 52, No 3 (2020)" : 27 Documents clear
Effects of ciprofloxacin concentrations on the resistance of uropathogen Escherichia coli: in vitro kinetics and dynamics simulation mode Rakhmawatie, Maya Dian; Mustofa, .; Sholikhah, Eti Nurwening
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 52, No 3 (2020)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.19106/JMedSci005203202001

Abstract

Ciprofloxacin is recommended for complicated urinary tract infection (UTIs) caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens included Escherichia coli. However, its optimum dose for UTIs remains uncertain that may cause the bacterial resistance. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of ciprofloxacin concentrations on the resistance of E. coli. The in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) models of ciprofloxacin 750 mg oral dose twice a day for one daywas compared to that dose of 500 mg twice a day for three days.Pharmacokinetic parameters i.e.AUC0-24 and Cmax. and pharmacodynamic parameter i.e. MIC of ciprofloxacin against E. coli which previously had MIC of 0.5 µg/mL were determined. The PK/PD parameters combination of ciprofloxacin included AUC0-24/MIC, Cmax/MIC, and T>MIC ratio were used to evaluate its antimicrobial activities which was measured based on kill and re-growth rates of bacterial colony after the ciprofloxacin administration. The result showed that MIC value against E. coli increase to 8-16 and 32-64 µg/mL after ciprofloxacin 750 and 500 mg administration, respectively, indicating the emergence of resistance. Both doses of ciprofloxacin were able to reduce the number of bacterial colony in the first two hours administration. However, after two hours administration, those both doses could make re-growth of bacterial colony. The value of AUC0-24/MIC (120.42±1.27 vs.92.62±9.36), Cmax/MIC (4.75±0.21 vs. 3.26±0.30), and (T>MIC 89.58±7.22 vs. 76.39±9.39) after ciprofloxacin administration at dose of 750 mg were higher than those at dose of 500 mg. The increase of AUC0-24/MIC and Cmax/MIC values could reduce the number of bacteria colony, however could not for T>MIC value. In conclusion, the AUC0-24/MIC and Cmax/MIC parameters of ciprofloxacincan be used to evaluate its activity. In addition, ciprofloxacin twice per day at dose 500 mg for three days and 750 mg for one day are not different in the inhibition of E. coli resistance emergence.
Immunopathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndromecoronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection: a concise update Dewi, Shinta Trilaksmi; Soebono, Hardyanto
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 52, No 3 (2020)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.19106/JMedSci005203202009

Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel coronavirus which has been identified as the cause of the recently emerging coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a respiratory-related infectious disease, in late 2019. As of May 2020, SARS-CoV-2 has infected millions of people with almost 300.000 deaths worldwide only within few months since its first case was reported. While this infection mostly results in mild diseases, the increasing number of severe cases and deaths cannot be overlooked. Due to its novelty, many facets of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis are not well understood. This review presents updated knowledge on the key virus characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and critical notes in the pathogenesis of this viral infection in human that is currently proposed to largely involve various aspects of the host immune responses. While the immediate impact of viral infection in the target cells contributes to the development of the disease, the ability of the virus to modify the host responses may result in the dysregulation of innate and adaptive immune responses, which commonly manifest in the severe spectrum of the disease. Having deep understanding on this complex process is central for tailoring appropriate management for the infected patients as well as for developing effective preventive measures, most importantly vaccine, which is hoped to occur in the near future.
Dysphagia as presenting symptom of myasthenia gravis: a case series of successful outcome in multidisciplinary approach Haryono, Anton; Budiarti, Rery; Muyassaroh, .
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 52, No 3 (2020)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.19106/JMedSci005203202010

Abstract

Dysphagia can be caused by mechanic or neurologic disorders. Neurologic dysphagia is commonly related to cerebrovascular disease, parkinson disease, amyotropic lateral sclerosis, tardive dyskinesia, and myasthenia gravis (MG). About 15-40% dysphagia occurred in MG generalized type. Only 6% MG with dysphagia were reported as a single symptom. The case reports aimed to demonstrate the role of otolaryngologist in multidisciplinary approach of the MG management. Two cases of MG were reported. First case was a 33 years old woman with moderate MG generalized type with ocular, dysphagia, and disarthria symptoms and second case was a 46 years old man with acute severe MG with crisis. Management therapy was applied according to onset and severity of MG. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and corticosteroid were administered for the first case, whereas therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) for second case. In conclusion, disfagia in MG can be accompanied with other symptom, therefore its management should be based on the severity in order to give a positive result.
Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), COVID-19 and cardiac injury: what cardiologist should know Laksono, Sidhi; Setianto, Budhi; Surya, Steven Philip
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 52, No 3 (2020): Special Issue: COVID-19
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (197.966 KB)

Abstract

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has already stated as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). Until now, Indonesia has also infected with this severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. All medical staffs join hand by hand to overcome this pandemic, not only pulmonologist but also cardiologist. Early reports from China showed that cardiovascular comorbidities add more mortality than without comorbid. Cardiac implication of this infection is cardiac injury. Viral pathology and pathophysiology that induced cardiac injury is still debatable and not well understood. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has emerged as a key regulator of renin-angiotensin system in cardiovascular disease. ACE2 has been postulated as one of the pathophysiology of COVID-19 and cardiac injury.
Role of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) on mind body interventions (MBIs) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) Achadiono, Deddy Nur Wachid; Kertia, Nyoman; Asdie, Achmad Husain; Riyanto, Bambang Udji Djoko
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 52, No 3 (2020)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (317.617 KB) | DOI: 10.19106/JMedSci005203202008

Abstract

Mind body interventions (MBIs) are exercise that emphasizes the use of brain and body to assist the healing process and to manage symptoms in order to improve wellbeing. The MBIs are expected to be a supporting therapy for patients with autoimmune disease such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), to improve patients’ activities, reduce fatigue, stress, and depression.One type of MBIs that could be potentially applied in Indonesia is latihan pasrah diri (LPD). Studies showed that MBIs can affect the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. Nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) is a transcription factor that controls gene expression related to many physiological responses including inflammation, proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. NF-κB can be activated through canonical and alternative pathway. This literature review aimed to identify the role of NF-κB as consequence of practicing MBIs in SLE patients. We searched for relevant publications in the MEDLINE/Pub Med and Google Scholar with no date restriction. This review revealed that abnormal NF-κB could mediate autoimmune condition in SLE pathogenesis. MBIs are expected to be a supportive treatment that can help to control NF-κB expression in SLE patients. LPD as an Indonesian original MBI is expected as a suitable techniques that can be applied in patients with SLE in Indonesia. Further studies on the effect of LPD on NF-κB expression in patients with SLE need to be further explored.
Role of methylprednisolone on mRNA expression of BAX, BCL-2 genein testicular torsion-detorsion of male albino Wistar rats Mauny, Muhammad Puteh; Danarto, Raden; Heriyanto, Didik Setyo
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 52, No 3 (2020)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.19106/JMedSci005203202002

Abstract

Study Background : Testicular torsion is a genitourinary emergency most common in children and emergencies requiring second surgery in adolescents after acute appendicitis1. Testicular torsion is more common on the left with a 1.2: 1 ratio, which is probably caused by a slightly longer spermatic cord on the left2. Testicular torsion can occur at any age, but the peak incidence is at age 14, with a peak of second occurrence at 1 year of age3. At 1 year of age, testicular torsion is a major cause of acute scrotum (83%). At the age of 3 - 13 years, the most frequent diagnosis is the torsion of the testicular appendix. After the age of 17 years, epididymitis is the most frequent diagnosis (75%)4. Method: This study is an experimental study, post-test only control group design, the sample was randomly divided into 4 groups, 2 intervention groups and 2 control groups. In this study the independent variables are the duration of the right torsion-detection treatment of the testes and the injection of Methylprednisolone in Wistar male rats. The dependent variables are mRNA expression in apoptosis and anti-apoptosis genes in rats’ ipsilateral and contralateral testes. . Results and Discussion: In this study, two-way ANOVA is used to analyze data between groups. Significant decrease in BAX gene mRNA expression (p
Animal model for sporadic dementia of Alzheimer’s type (SDAT) using streptozotocin and lipopolysaccharide combinations in rats Hartantyo, Rahadian Yudo; Hidayat, Mohammad Rizky Mochtar; Azzam, Abdul Basith; mulyati, mulyati
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 52, No 3 (2020)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.19106/JMedSci005203202003

Abstract

Sporadic dementia of Alzheimer’s type (SDAT) pathogenesis has not been revealed completely due to the difficulty in creating an appropriate animal model. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of single-dose intraperitoneal (IP) induction of streptozotocin (STZ) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the β-amyloid levels and the brain function of experimental rats. Eighteen rats were divided into three groups i.e. control, TRE1 (STZ 60 mg.kg-1 BW + LPS 3 mg.kg-1 BW), and TRE2 (STZ 30 mg.kg-1 BW + LPS 1.5 mg.kg-1 BW). The substances were administered in a single dose. Behavioral tests were started at day-30 after injection, we performed Morris water maze (MWM) and novel object recognition (NOR) tests. Afterward, we measured whole brain and serum β-amyloid levels, as one of the biomarkers of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), using the ELISA method. In MWM tests, the escape latency and time spent in the target quadrant of treatment groups were significantly higher than those in control at the day-5 MWM test and probe trial. The rats in treatment groups have negative discrimination indexes in NOR tasks, indicating that the rats could not remember the familiar object. Intraperitoneal STZ and LPS significantly increase soluble brain β-amyloid levels of treatment groups than those in the control group. In conclusion, the treatment of STZ (60 mg.kg-1 BW) and LPS (3 mg.kg-1 BW) indicated spatial and recognition memory impairment, along with an increase of brain soluble β-amyloid level in rats.
Association between hearing loss and hypertension in non ear infection patients in Universitas Gadjah Mada Academic Hospital Wibowo, Anton Sony; Avidati, Herfis; Ernawati, Sulis
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 52, No 3 (2020)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (199.961 KB) | DOI: 10.19106/JMedSci005203202007

Abstract

Hearing loss is a common occurrence that can decrease productivity and quality of life. The incidence of hearing loss is often experienced by adults due to several factors, and one influencing factor is cardiovascular disease. Hypertension is known to have an effect on decreasing inner ear vascularization that will result in hearing loss. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of hearing loss and hypertension in non-ear infection patients. This case-control study recruited subjects who underwent audiometric examination at the Universitas Gadjah Mada Academic Hospital, Yogyakarta, from June 2018 - July 2019. Hypertension was determined based on the results of blood pressure examination based on JNC 8 criteria. Hearing threshold value was taken from pure tone audiometry. The association of hypertension with hearing loss was analysed in each group and between study groups. Sixty patients who underwent audiometric examination divided into two groups with 30 patients in each group were involved in this study. There was a significant relationship between hypertension and hearing loss (OR=13.1; 95%CI: 3.8-45.0; p= 0.001). Hypertension acts as a variable that significantly affects the incidence of hearing loss. Patients with hypertension have a greater risk of hearing loss compared to patients without hypertension.
Human security, social stigma, and global health: the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia Dwinantoaji, Hastoro; DW, Sumarni
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 52, No 3 (2020): Special Issue: COVID-19
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is now a global public health threat with many medical, ethical, economic, and socialimpacts. COVID-19 has spread worldwide, to many Asian and Middle Eastern countries, the United Statesof America, and European countries. The current COVID-19 pandemic that has devastated Indonesia, has infected and killed more healthcare workers, in particular doctors and nurses, than any other outbreak in the history of this virus. People have basic needs that must be met for them to feel safe and secure. A history of the outbreak of the COVID-19 is brifley showed, before exploring the impact the virus had in Indonesia. During this exploration, some of the key issues arising from the experiences in Indonesia, in addressing the threat of COVID-19 will be reviewed. Drawing on the COVID-19 as the case study, we consider the ways in which the concept of human security expands understanding of its relationship to health. Further, weshow how major public health issues can evolve into security threats.The final section of the article will be an analysis of the lessons learned from COVID-19 and policy implications in addressing health and human security threats.
Ischemic stroke in coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) positive patient: a case report Sanyasi, Rosa De Lima Renita; Pramudita, Esdras Ardi
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 52, No 3 (2020): Special Issue: COVID-19
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

A new coronavirus disease called COVID-19 was declared by World Health Organization (WHO). The COVID-19 may complicated into many other conditions, including neurologic. One among this neurologic complication is stroke. This paper aimed to report a case of ischemic stroke in COVID-19 positive patient in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. A male patient, 42 years old, came to emergency department with weakness in his right arm for two days as his main complain. He also had face drop on the right side, cough, and shortness of breath. He had a history of hyperthyroid and type II diabetes mellitus. The brain CT Scan showed a lacunar infarct in the left lentiform nucleus. Patient had an nasopharynx and oropharynx swab to be checked for the presence of COVID-19 and the result was positive.The pathophysiology of stroke in COVID-19 include the hyperactivation of inflammatory factors that causes a fatal inflammatory storm. It also cause a damage of coagulation system which causing the D-dimer and platelet abnormalities, hypercoagulability from critical illness and cardioembolism from virus-related cardiac injury. Moreover, COVID-19 may cause a direct role in viral infection in central nervous system. In conclusion, ischemic stroke can be present along with COVID-19. 

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