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Articles 17 Documents
Search results for , issue "Vol 52, No 3 (2020): Special Issue: COVID-19" : 17 Documents clear
Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), COVID-19 and cardiac injury: what cardiologist should know Laksono, Sidhi; Setianto, Budhi; Surya, Steven Philip
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 52, No 3 (2020): Special Issue: COVID-19
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has already stated as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). Until now, Indonesia has also infected with this severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. All medical staffs join hand by hand to overcome this pandemic, not only pulmonologist but also cardiologist. Early reports from China showed that cardiovascular comorbidities add more mortality than without comorbid. Cardiac implication of this infection is cardiac injury. Viral pathology and pathophysiology that induced cardiac injury is still debatable and not well understood. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has emerged as a key regulator of renin-angiotensin system in cardiovascular disease. ACE2 has been postulated as one of the pathophysiology of COVID-19 and cardiac injury.
Human security, social stigma, and global health: the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia Dwinantoaji, Hastoro; DW, Sumarni
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 52, No 3 (2020): Special Issue: COVID-19
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is now a global public health threat with many medical, ethical, economic, and socialimpacts. COVID-19 has spread worldwide, to many Asian and Middle Eastern countries, the United Statesof America, and European countries. The current COVID-19 pandemic that has devastated Indonesia, has infected and killed more healthcare workers, in particular doctors and nurses, than any other outbreak in the history of this virus. People have basic needs that must be met for them to feel safe and secure. A history of the outbreak of the COVID-19 is brifley showed, before exploring the impact the virus had in Indonesia. During this exploration, some of the key issues arising from the experiences in Indonesia, in addressing the threat of COVID-19 will be reviewed. Drawing on the COVID-19 as the case study, we consider the ways in which the concept of human security expands understanding of its relationship to health. Further, weshow how major public health issues can evolve into security threats.The final section of the article will be an analysis of the lessons learned from COVID-19 and policy implications in addressing health and human security threats.
Ischemic stroke in coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) positive patient: a case report Sanyasi, Rosa De Lima Renita; Pramudita, Esdras Ardi
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 52, No 3 (2020): Special Issue: COVID-19
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

A new coronavirus disease called COVID-19 was declared by World Health Organization (WHO). The COVID-19 may complicated into many other conditions, including neurologic. One among this neurologic complication is stroke. This paper aimed to report a case of ischemic stroke in COVID-19 positive patient in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. A male patient, 42 years old, came to emergency department with weakness in his right arm for two days as his main complain. He also had face drop on the right side, cough, and shortness of breath. He had a history of hyperthyroid and type II diabetes mellitus. The brain CT Scan showed a lacunar infarct in the left lentiform nucleus. Patient had an nasopharynx and oropharynx swab to be checked for the presence of COVID-19 and the result was positive.The pathophysiology of stroke in COVID-19 include the hyperactivation of inflammatory factors that causes a fatal inflammatory storm. It also cause a damage of coagulation system which causing the D-dimer and platelet abnormalities, hypercoagulability from critical illness and cardioembolism from virus-related cardiac injury. Moreover, COVID-19 may cause a direct role in viral infection in central nervous system. In conclusion, ischemic stroke can be present along with COVID-19. 
Controversy of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and angiotensin converting enzymeinhibitors (ACEIs) prescription for hypertension patients in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic Yuliana, Yuliana
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 52, No 3 (2020): Special Issue: COVID-19
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has made all the world in a mess. Novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing COVID-19 infects human cells through angiotensin-converting enzyme 2receptors (ACEreceptors). Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE) is upregulated in diabetes and cardiovascular diseases including hypertension. Hypertensionpatients commonly consume angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and/or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) which could increase ACE receptors.It was suspected that the ARBs or ACEIs administration may worsen the clinical outcome for the hypertension patients with COVID-19. However, no clinical trial had significantly revealed how appropriate management and prescription of ARBs and ACEIs for the hypertension patients with COVID-19. The use of ARBs and ACEIs for these patients is still controversy. Studies concerning the side effect of single or combination use of ARBs and ACEIs in the hypertension patients with COVID-19 as well as specific morbidity and mortality are needed. This review was aimed to provide understanding concerning the appropriate management and prescription of ARBs and ACEIs for hypertension patients with COVID-19.
Current understanding of the origin, molecular biology and continuing evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Hakim, Mohamad Saifudin; Annisa, Luthvia; Supriyati, Endah; Daniwijaya, Edwin W.; Wibowo, Rakhmat A.; Arguni, Eggi; Nuryastuti, Titik
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 52, No 3 (2020): Special Issue: COVID-19
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Recent outbreaks of human coronaviruses, officially named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), have put health authorities worldwide on a high alert. Firstly emerged in the city of Wuhan, China, SARS-CoV-2 infection is rapidly escalating into a global pandemic. It is first thought as the result of a zoonotic transmission event, similar to the previous epidemic of coronaviruses. However, a continuously increasing number of confirmed cases indicates that the virus gains capacity of efficient human-to-human transmission. Soon after the pandemic is arising, many efforts are focused on identifying the origin of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the human population. Current evidence suggests that the virus is probably derived from bat or pangolin coronaviruses as the natural host. Whether intermediate host(s) exist in the transmission cascade from bat or pangolin to humans is, to a great extent, elusive. This information is essential as the basis for infection prevention and control measures. In this review, we discuss our recent understanding of SARS-CoV-2 biology, highlighting its origin and molecular evolution.
Pulmonary artery hypertension patients and the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19): are they protected from severe disease? Hartopo, Anggoro Budi; Anggrahini, Dyah Wulan; Siswanto, Bambang Budi; Dinarti, Lucia Kris
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 52, No 3 (2020): Special Issue: COVID-19
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is a current pandemic of viral infection which mainlyinvolves respiratory system and may progress into severe multiple organ dysfunction and mortality. Pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) is a disease marked by increased mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance due to pulmonary panvascular remodeling. Although rare, the prevalence of PAH is currently escalating in Indonesia due to increased diagnostic capacity and referral, treatment availability and improved survival. Despite chronic cardiac and pulmonary diseases are at increased risk to develop severe COVID-19, patients with PAH are considered to be not in higher risk to develop severe COVID-19. However, whether this population is protected from severe COVID-19 is unclear. There are protective and offensive factors need to be considered in PAH patients in respect to COVID-19.
Review of immune responses correlated with COVID-19 outcomes: the fight, debacle and aftermath in the Indonesian context. Septyaningtrias, Dian Eurike; Fachiroh, Jajah; Paramita, Dewi Kartikawati; Purnomosari, Dewajani; Susilowati, Rina
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 52, No 3 (2020): Special Issue: COVID-19
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

 In the current pandemic, the highly contagious nature of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) leads to an enormous burden for the global health care system and creates challenging socioeconomic problems. Respiratory mucosa, the main entrance of SARS-CoV-2 infection, are equipped with an innate immune defense system as the initial response against infection. Activation of the adaptive immune system facilitates viral clearance as well as providing immunological memory for prevention from subsequent exposure. However, despite repeated efforts at implementing appropriate interventions, severe and fatal cases are continuing to occur and reports of recurrent cases need clarification. Host factors may contribute to the severity of the diseases while viral immune evasion is a common phenomenon leading to severe outcomes and recurrent infection. Discussions of immunological-based tests for screening, herd immunity, along with the possible advantages or potentially futile efforts of development of vaccine and alternative immunotherapy have become a part of daily household conversations. In this review, evidence of innate and adaptive immune responses or lack of them, and immunological problems relevant for SARS-CoV-2 will be summarized. Finally, perspectives for future studies especially in the Indonesian population will be sketched.
Convalescent plasma for COVID-19: A reasonable option for the pandemic based on both scientific and practical point of views Hardianti, Mardiah Suci; Setiawan, Syahru Agung; Putera, David Dwi; Triyono, Teguh; At Thobari, Jarir; Kurnianda, Johan
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 52, No 3 (2020): Special Issue: COVID-19
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Convalescent plasma treatment has become a promising adjunctive option to treat COVID-19. Several case reports consistently supported the feasibility of this approach by showing the safety and improvements of clinical and laboratory aspects from the treated patients. However, more clinical trials are still required to establish the definitive statement about its potential effectiveness. We review the scientific basis for the application of convalescent plasma in COVID-19 to understand its potentials better. We also cover the potential risks and benefits for this treatment in order to be more selective and careful when preparing and deciding to apply this approach. Lastly, we summarize any important points to monitor after the administration of this treatment to prioritize safety and measure the effectiveness of the treatment.
Neurological findings in patients with COVID-19: asystematic review Ar Rochmah, Mawaddah; Satiti, Sekar; Setyopranoto, Ismail; Harahap, Indra Sari Kusuma; Sejahtera, Desin Pambudi; Nugroho, Dhite Bayu; Sutarni, Sri
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 52, No 3 (2020): Special Issue: COVID-19
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Since the emerging of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in Wuhan, China at the end of 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become pandemic for months. Due to fast increased number of the positive patients with COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 is considered highly pathogenic virus with various clinical presentations. Apart from the typical respiratory symptoms, neurological complains in COVID-19 involving central and peripheral nervous systems have been reported. This paper aimed to review the neurological findings reported in patients with COVID-19. We qualitatively reviewed studies reporting COVID-19 patient(s) with neurological manifestations according to the recommendations of PRISMA statement.There were twelve studies included in this brief review. We found that patients with neurological findings were reported ranging from symptomatic complain of headache and dizziness to specific neurological diseases/syndromes, such as meningitis/encephalitis, acute cerebrovascular diseases, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and Miller Fisher syndrome. This review suggests the possible neurological involvement in COVID-19. We hope to raise the awareness of the health workers in taking care of the patients with COVID-19 and neurological diseases.  
Clinical cardiac manifestations in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Herman, Hafizha; Gharini, Putrika PR; Kris Dinarti, Lucia
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 52, No 3 (2020): Special Issue: COVID-19
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected more than 2 million people worldwide with case fatality rates between 3-15%. The pathophysiology of this newly emerging disease in affecting cardiovascular system is poorly understood. This review aimed to understand from various retrospective studies and case reports that have been published and updated during the pandemic of COVID-19 related to the underlying mechanism and cardiovascular interaction with coronavirus. A literature search was done with Google search, PubMed, European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA) network since the early days of COVID-19 pandemic. Clinical presentation may be asymptomatic or the severe cases will have acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Protein spikes of SARS-CoV-2 virus use the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as viral entry to host cells. Due to the upregulation of ACE2, people with any pre-existing cardiac diseases are more vulnerable to the infection and more likely to have a severe condition of COVID-19 infection with a higher risk of mortality. On the other hand, ACE2 has protective effects against myocardial inflammation and lung injuries. Several cases of COVID-19 infection may have cardiac manifestations as a chief complaint or acute cardiac injury as the complication. Recent case reports show that acute cardiac injury, myocarditis, cardiogenic shock, thromboembolism, and arrhythmias could be the complications of COVID-19 even without history or risk factors of cardiovascular disease. There are several hypotheses related to the mechanism of acute cardiac injury in COVID-19 patients, including damage through ACE2 receptors, hypoxia, cardiac microvascular damage, and inflammatory response.COVID-19 infection can cause many interactions in the cardiovascular system, whether the patients already had chronic heart disease or not. Considering the lack of evidence of the RAS inhibitor in COVID-19, the use of ACE inhibitor/ARB should be continued unless contraindicated and may be beneficial in patients with hypertension, heart failure and diabetes mellitus. Early recognition of cardiac manifestations from COVID-19 infections will be the key to prevent short and long term cardiac adverse events.

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