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Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan
ISSN : 23030623     EISSN : 24072370     DOI : -
Core Subject : Science,
This journal presents articles and information on research, development and applications in biomass conversion processes (thermo-chemical conversion; physico-chemical conversion and bio-chemical conversion) and equipment to produce fuels, power, heat, and value-added chemicals from biomass. A biorefinery takes advantage of the various components in biomass and their intermediates therefore maximizing the value derived from the biomass feedstock. A biorefinery could, for example, produce one or several low-volume, but high-value, chemical or nutraceutical products and a low-value, but high-volume liquid transportation fuel such as biodiesel or bioethanol (see also alcohol fuel). The high-value products increase profitability, the high-volume fuel helps meet energy needs, and the power production helps to lower energy costs and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from traditional power plant facilities. Future biorefineries may play a major role in producing chemicals and materials that are traditionally produced from petroleum.
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PEMBUATAN FILM PLASTIK BIODEGRADABLE DARI LIMBAH BIJI DURIAN (Durio zibethinus Murr.) Handayani, Prima Astuti; Wijayanti, Hesmita
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 4, No 1 (2015): June 2015
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v4i1.3770

Abstract

Pembuatan film plastik biodegradable dilakukan melalui proses pencampuran menggunakan pelarut aquades dengan komposisi 10 g tepung biji durian, 50 mL larutan kitosan 2% , dan gliserol 25% dari berat pati.Variasi suhu pencampuran yaitu 70oC, 80oC, dan 90oC. Film plastik biodegradable yang dihasilkan dilakukan karakterisasi FTIR, biodegradasi, kuat tarik dan elongasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan variasi suhu proses pengadukan mempengaruhi kemampuan kuat tarik dan elongasi. Film plastik biodegradable terbaik dihasilkan pada suhu pengadukan 80oC dengan nilai kuat tarik sebesar 1187,732 N/m2 dan % elongasi sebesar 7,547%. Film plastik biodegradable dari limbah biji durian mampu terdegradasi selama 15 hari, sedangkan variasi suhu proses pengadukan tidak mempengaruhi kemampuan biodegradasi.Gugus fungsi yang terdapat dalam film plastik biodegradable diantaranya C-H, O-H, N-H, C-O, C≡C, C=O, dan C=C. Adanya gugus fungsi amida dan ester dalam analisis FTIR menunjukkan film plastik biodegradable dari limbah biji durian ini dapat terdegradasi dan dapat dikatakan sebagai plastik yang ramah lingkungan.Kata  kunci: film plastik biodegradable, biji durian, degradasi, kuat tarik, elongasi, dan FTIR. The manufacture of the biodegradable plastic film was done through the mixing process using  an aquades solvent with 10 g of durian seed flour, 50 mL of 2% chitosan solution, and 25% of glycerol from the weight of starch. The variation of the mixing temperature are 70oC, 80oC, and 90oC. The biodegradable plastic film was characterized by FTIR, its biodegradation, tensile strength, and elongation. The results were showed that the variations of temperature mixing proses affecting the ability of tensile strength and elongation.The best biodegradable plastic film was produced from the mixing process at 80oC and the value of tensile strength at 1187,732 N/m2 and percentation of elongation at 7,547%. The biodegradable plastic from the waste of durian seed was able to relegated up to 15 days, after while the variation of mixing process temperature was not affect to the ability of the biodegradation. The functional groups that is contained in the bidegradable plastic film are including C-H,O-H, N-H, C-O, C=C, C=O, and C=C. The existence of amida and ester functional groups in the FTIR analysis showed that the bidegradable plastic film from this waste of durian seed can be degraded and can be regarded as an environmentally friendly plastic.Key word : biodegradable plastic film, durian seed, degradation, tensile strength, elongasi, and FTIR.
ADSORPSI Pb2+ DALAM LIMBAH CAIR ARTIFISIAL MENGGUNAKAN SISTEM ADSORPSI KOLOM DENGAN BAHAN ISIAN ABU LAYANG BATUBARA SERBUK DAN GRANULAR Astuti, Widi; Kurniawan, Bayu
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 4, No 1 (2015): June 2015
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v4i1.3771

Abstract

Batubara  merupakan  salah  satu  sumber energi  alternatif  yang murah. Oleh karena itu,  penggunaan  batubara  di  Indonesia meningkat pesat  setiap  tahunnya. Penggunaan batubara  ini  menghasilkan  limbah  yang  dapat mencemari lingkungan baik limbah gas  seperti   CO2, NOX,  CO,  SO2,  hidrokarbon  maupun  limbah  padat  yang berupa abu  layang dan  abu  dasar. Abu  layang  mengandung SiO2, Al2O3,  dan sisa karbon yang tidak terbakar sehingga potensial digunakan sebagai adsorben. Pada penelitian ini, kemampuan adsorpsi abu layang ditingkatkan melalui aktivasi termal dan diuji untuk menjerap ion Pb2+ dalam limbah cair artifisial. Adsorpsi dilakukan pada sistem kolom yang berlangsung kontinyu menggunakan bahan isian abu layang teraktivasi, dalam bentuk serbuk dan granular, pada laju alir influen yang bervariasi. Hasilnya, laju alir mempengaruhi nilai kapasitas (qo), konstanta thomas (KtH) dan waktu breakthrough.Kata Kunci : Pb2+ , adsorpsi, abu layang, breakthrough Coal is one of the inexpensive alternative energy. Therefore, the usage of coal in indonesia has been increased every year. It produces waste that can pollute the environment including gases waste such as CO2, NOX, CO, SO2, hydrocarbons and solid waste including fly ash and bottom ash. Coal fly ash is composed of  SiO2, Al2O3 and unburned carbon that enables it to act as a potential adsorbent. In this research, the adsorption capasity has increased by thermal activation and used to adsorp Pb2+ ion in wastewater.  The adsorption was carried out in packed column contains powder and granular activated fly ash. In the system, flow rate was varied.  The results show that flow rate influences adsorption capacity, Thomas constant and breakthrough time.Keywords: Pb2+, adsorption, coal fly ash, breakthrough
PENGARUH SUHU DAN KONSENTRASI RUMEN SAPI TERHADAP PRODUKSI BIOGAS DARI VINASSE Putri, Rr. Dewi Artanti; Tsani, Sunar Tejo
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 4, No 1 (2015): June 2015
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v4i1.3767

Abstract

Vinasse merupakan limbah yang dihasilkan oleh produksi bioetanol yang mempunyai kandungan COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) yang tinggi. Dengan karakteristik tersebut vinasse lebih tepat diuraikan dengan proses anaerob menjadi biogas. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengkaji pengaruh suhu dan perbandingan rumen sapi  yang dibutuhkan untuk mendapatkan biogas dengan hasil yang optimum. Suhu mempengaruhi pertumbuhan mikroorganisme dan kecepatan reaksi dalam pembentukan biogas. Rumen sapi adalah inokulum atau starter yang merupakan bahan yang perlu ditambahkan ke dalam sistem digester biogas. Percobaan dilakukan dalam digester volum 500 ml, dioperasikan pada pH 7 dengan memvariasikan perbandingan suhu,yaitu suhu ruang, suhu 50 oC, dan suhu60 oC dan variasi konsentrasi rumen sapi  5%, 10%, 15%. Proses fermentasi dilakukan dengan cara batch dengan pengukuran gas setiap 2-3 hari menggunakan metode water displacement technique sampai gas tidak terbentuk selama 60 hari. Respon yang diambil pada penelitian ini adalah volume gas yang dihasilkan berdasarkan pengaruh suhu dan konsentrasi rumen sapi terhadap produksi biogas. Perubahan suhu dan konsentrasi rumen sapi sangat mempengaruhi produksi biogas. Hasil yang terbaik dari penelitian ini adalah pada konsentrasi rumen 15% pada suhu ruang yaitu sebanyak 370 ml. Kata kunci: biogas, vinasse, suhu, rumen sapiVinasse is the waste generated by the production of bioethanol which has high content of COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand). With these characteristics, it is more appropriate to convert it into biogas through anaerobic digestion process. This study was conducted to assess the effect of temperature and the cow rumen concentration needed to obtain biogas with optimum results. Temperature affects the growth of microorganisms and speed of reaction in the formation of biogas. The cow rumen was used as inoculum or starter material that needs to be added to the biogas digester system. Experiments conducted in the digester volume of 500 ml, operated at pH 7 with varying the ratio of the temperature, i.e. room temperature, temperature of 50 oC and 60 oC, and variations in the cow rumen concentration of 5%, 10%, 15%. The fermentation process was done in batch condition with gas measurement every 2-3 days using the method of water displacement technique until the gas was not formed for 60 days. Responses were taken in this study is the volume of gas produced by the effect of temperature and concentration of the cow rumen production of biogas. Changes in temperature and concentration greatly affects the cow rumen production of biogas. The best results from this study was obtained from the fermentation with the rumen concentration of 15% at room temperature which was as much as 370 ml.Keywords: biogas, vinasse, the temperature, the cow rumen
PEMUNGUTAN BRAZILIN DARI KAYU SECANG (Caesalpinia sappan L) DENGAN METODE MASERASI DAN APLIKASINYA UNTUK PEWARNAAN KAIN Fardhyanti, Dewi Selvia; Riski, Ria Dwita
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 4, No 1 (2015): June 2015
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v4i1.3768

Abstract

Pembuatan zat warna alami dilakukan dengan metode maserasi dengan menggunakan pelarut etanol dan aquades, variasi volume pelarut yang digunakan 75, 150, dan 250 ml. Variasi waktu perendaman 6, 12, 24, dan 48 jam. Serbuk zat warna alami Brazilin dianalisis dengan FTIR dan diaplikasikan pada kain. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan semakin lama waktu ekstraksi dan volume pelarut yang digunakan, maka rendemen yang dihasilkan semakin banyak. Rendemen serbuk brazilin maksimal sebesar 6,316% pada waktu ekstraksi 48 jam menggunakan volume pelarut etanol 250 ml. Gugus fungsi brazilin memiliki ikatan tertentu diantaranya C-H, O-H, C-O, C=O, C=C alkena. Adanya gugus fungsi –OH menunjukkan adanya senyawa brazilin. Serbuk brazilin diaplikasikan pada kain dengan teknik celup, zat pengikat seperti tawas, kapur, dan tunjung mempengaruhi kenampakan warna yang dihasilkan pada kain.Kata kunci : zat warna, ekstraksi, maserasi, brazilin, teknik celup. A production of natural dyes can be done by maceration method with using ethanol solvent and distilled water (aquadest), variations of solvent volumes which used were 75, 150, and 250 ml. Soaking times variations were 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours. Brazilin natural dye powder was analyzed by FTIR and applied to industry. The research results showed the longer of the extraction time and the volume of the used solvents, resulted in the higher yield. Yield of Brazilin powder maximum was 6.316% on the extraction time during 48 hours with using ethanol solvent of 250 ml. Functional groups of Brazilin have specific bond among CH, OH, CO, C = O, C = C alkenes. The existence of the functional groups -OH indicates the brazilin compound. Brazilin powder was applied to industry with dye techniques, binding agents such as alum, lime, and lotus (tunjung) which affected the appearance of the fabric color.Keyword : natural dyes, extraction, maceration, brazilin, dye technique.
MICROWAVE ASSISTED HYDRODISTILLATION UNTUK EKSTRAKSI MINYAK ATSIRI DARI KULIT JERUK BALI SEBAGAI LILIN AROMATERAPI -, Megawati; urniyawati, Fitriya M
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 4, No 1 (2015): June 2015
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v4i1.3769

Abstract

Ekstraksi minyak atsiri kulit jeruk bali dilakukan menggunakan metode Microwave Assisted Hydrodistillation dengan variasi daya (800, 600, 450, 300, dan 100 W) dan massa bahan (150, 125, 100, 75,dan 50 g). Ektraksi dengan variasi daya dilakukan pada massa 150 g dan didapat daya optimum yaitu 600 W, sedangkan ekstraksi dengan variasi massa bahan dilakukan pada daya 600 W. Minyak atsiri yang diperoleh dianalisis densitas, kelarutan dalam alkohol 95% dan senyawa kimia minyak atsiri kulit jeruk bali menggunakan Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) dan minyak atsiri kulit jeruk bali yang didapat diaplikasikan untuk lilin aromaterapi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan semakin besar daya yang digunakan maka volum minyak yang dihasilkan semakin besar dan waktu ekstraksinya lebih cepat. Variasi massa bahan menunjukkan semakin besar massa bahan massa bahan yang digunakan maka volum minyak yang dihasilkan semakin besar. Densitas minyak atsiri kulit jeruk bali hasil penelitian yaitu 0,810 g/mL, larut pada alkohol 95% dengan perbandingan minyak-alkohol 1:6 dan terdapat tiga komponen senyawa kimia penyusun minyak atsiri kulit jeruk bali yaitu limonen (93,99%), β-pinene (3,20%), dan germakren-D (2,82%). Minyak atsiri kulit jeruk bali hasil ekstraksi yang diperoleh dapat diaplikasikan untuk lilin aromaterapi. Kata kunci: Kulit jeruk bali, lilin aromaterapi, microwave assisted hydrodistillation, minyak atsiri. Essential oils extracted from pomelo peel was performed using Microwave Assisted Hydrodistillation with variations of microwave oven power (800, 600, 450, 300, and 100 W) and material mass (150, 125, 100, 75, and 50 g). The extraction with power variation was conducted with 150 g of material and the optimum extraction power was obtained at 600 W. Therefore material mass variation was conducted with microwave oven power of 600 W. The essential oils produced were analyzed for its density, solubility in alcohol of 95% v/v, and chemical composition. The chemical composition analysis was conducted with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spektrometry (GC-MS). Afterward the essential oils was treated to produce aromatherapy candle. It is concluded that the greater power obtained the greater oil volume. Additionally the greater material mass resulted in the greater oil volume. The extracted pomelo peel essential oil density is about 0.810 g/mL. Beside that, essential oil solubility in alcohol is about 95% v/v (oil-alcohol ratio of 1:6). There are three oil components in pomelo peel essential oil, i.e. limonene (93.99%), β-pinene (3.20%), and germacrene-D (2.82%). Finally, obtained pomelo peel essential oil can be utilized as raw material to produce aromatherapy candle. Keywords: Aromatherapy candle, essential oils, microwave assisted hydrodistillation, pomelo peel.
MICROWAVE ASSISTED HYDRODISTILLATION UNTUK EKSTRAKSI MINYAK ATSIRI DARI KULIT JERUK BALI SEBAGAI LILIN AROMATERAPI -, Megawati; urniyawati, Fitriya M
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 4, No 1 (2015): June 2015
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v4i1.3769

Abstract

Ekstraksi minyak atsiri kulit jeruk bali dilakukan menggunakan metode Microwave Assisted Hydrodistillation dengan variasi daya (800, 600, 450, 300, dan 100 W) dan massa bahan (150, 125, 100, 75,dan 50 g). Ektraksi dengan variasi daya dilakukan pada massa 150 g dan didapat daya optimum yaitu 600 W, sedangkan ekstraksi dengan variasi massa bahan dilakukan pada daya 600 W. Minyak atsiri yang diperoleh dianalisis densitas, kelarutan dalam alkohol 95% dan senyawa kimia minyak atsiri kulit jeruk bali menggunakan Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) dan minyak atsiri kulit jeruk bali yang didapat diaplikasikan untuk lilin aromaterapi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan semakin besar daya yang digunakan maka volum minyak yang dihasilkan semakin besar dan waktu ekstraksinya lebih cepat. Variasi massa bahan menunjukkan semakin besar massa bahan massa bahan yang digunakan maka volum minyak yang dihasilkan semakin besar. Densitas minyak atsiri kulit jeruk bali hasil penelitian yaitu 0,810 g/mL, larut pada alkohol 95% dengan perbandingan minyak-alkohol 1:6 dan terdapat tiga komponen senyawa kimia penyusun minyak atsiri kulit jeruk bali yaitu limonen (93,99%), ?-pinene (3,20%), dan germakren-D (2,82%). Minyak atsiri kulit jeruk bali hasil ekstraksi yang diperoleh dapat diaplikasikan untuk lilin aromaterapi.Kata kunci: Kulit jeruk bali, lilin aromaterapi, microwave assisted hydrodistillation, minyak atsiri.Essential oils extracted from pomelo peel was performed using Microwave Assisted Hydrodistillation with variations of microwave oven power (800, 600, 450, 300, and 100 W) and material mass (150, 125, 100, 75, and 50 g). The extraction with power variation was conducted with 150 g of material and the optimum extraction power was obtained at 600 W. Therefore material mass variation was conducted with microwave oven power of 600 W. The essential oils produced were analyzed for its density, solubility in alcohol of 95% v/v, and chemical composition. The chemical composition analysis was conducted with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spektrometry (GC-MS). Afterward the essential oils was treated to produce aromatherapy candle. It is concluded that the greater power obtained the greater oil volume. Additionally the greater material mass resulted in the greater oil volume. The extracted pomelo peel essential oil density is about 0.810 g/mL. Beside that, essential oil solubility in alcohol is about 95% v/v (oil-alcohol ratio of 1:6). There are three oil components in pomelo peel essential oil, i.e. limonene (93.99%), ?-pinene (3.20%), and germacrene-D (2.82%). Finally, obtained pomelo peel essential oil can be utilized as raw material to produce aromatherapy candle.Keywords: Aromatherapy candle, essential oils, microwave assisted hydrodistillation, pomelo peel.
PEMBUATAN FILM PLASTIK BIODEGRADABLE DARI LIMBAH BIJI DURIAN (Durio zibethinus Murr.) Handayani, Prima Astuti; Wijayanti, Hesmita
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 4, No 1 (2015): June 2015
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v4i1.3770

Abstract

Pembuatan film plastik biodegradable dilakukan melalui proses pencampuran menggunakan pelarut aquades dengan komposisi 10 g tepung biji durian, 50 mL larutan kitosan 2% , dan gliserol 25% dari berat pati.Variasi suhu pencampuran yaitu 70oC, 80oC, dan 90oC. Film plastik biodegradable yang dihasilkan dilakukan karakterisasi FTIR, biodegradasi, kuat tarik dan elongasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan variasi suhu proses pengadukan mempengaruhi kemampuan kuat tarik dan elongasi. Film plastik biodegradable terbaik dihasilkan pada suhu pengadukan 80oC dengan nilai kuat tarik sebesar 1187,732 N/m2 dan % elongasi sebesar 7,547%. Film plastik biodegradable dari limbah biji durian mampu terdegradasi selama 15 hari, sedangkan variasi suhu proses pengadukan tidak mempengaruhi kemampuan biodegradasi.Gugus fungsi yang terdapat dalam film plastik biodegradable diantaranya C-H, O-H, N-H, C-O, C?C, C=O, dan C=C. Adanya gugus fungsi amida dan ester dalam analisis FTIR menunjukkan film plastik biodegradable dari limbah biji durian ini dapat terdegradasi dan dapat dikatakan sebagai plastik yang ramah lingkungan.Kata kunci: film plastik biodegradable, biji durian, degradasi, kuat tarik, elongasi, dan FTIR.The manufacture of the biodegradable plastic film was done through the mixing process using an aquades solvent with 10 g of durian seed flour, 50 mL of 2% chitosan solution, and 25% of glycerol from the weight of starch. The variation of the mixing temperature are 70oC, 80oC, and 90oC. The biodegradable plastic film was characterized by FTIR, its biodegradation, tensile strength, and elongation. The results were showed that the variations of temperature mixing proses affecting the ability of tensile strength and elongation.The best biodegradable plastic film was produced from the mixing process at 80oC and the value of tensile strength at 1187,732 N/m2 and percentation of elongation at 7,547%. The biodegradable plastic from the waste of durian seed was able to relegated up to 15 days, after while the variation of mixing process temperature was not affect to the ability of the biodegradation. The functional groups that is contained in the bidegradable plastic film are including C-H,O-H, N-H, C-O, C=C, C=O, and C=C. The existence of amida and ester functional groups in the FTIR analysis showed that the bidegradable plastic film from this waste of durian seed can be degraded and can be regarded as an environmentally friendly plastic.Key word : biodegradable plastic film, durian seed, degradation, tensile strength, elongasi, and FTIR.
ADSORPSI Pb2+ DALAM LIMBAH CAIR ARTIFISIAL MENGGUNAKAN SISTEM ADSORPSI KOLOM DENGAN BAHAN ISIAN ABU LAYANG BATUBARA SERBUK DAN GRANULAR Astuti, Widi; Kurniawan, Bayu
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 4, No 1 (2015): June 2015
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v4i1.3771

Abstract

Batubara merupakan salah satu sumber energi alternatif yang murah. Oleh karena itu, penggunaan batubara di Indonesia meningkat pesat setiap tahunnya. Penggunaan batubara ini menghasilkan limbah yang dapat mencemari lingkungan baik limbah gas seperti CO2, NOX, CO, SO2, hidrokarbon maupun limbah padat yang berupa abu layang dan abu dasar. Abu layang mengandung SiO2, Al2O3, dan sisa karbon yang tidak terbakar sehingga potensial digunakan sebagai adsorben. Pada penelitian ini, kemampuan adsorpsi abu layang ditingkatkan melalui aktivasi termal dan diuji untuk menjerap ion Pb2+ dalam limbah cair artifisial. Adsorpsi dilakukan pada sistem kolom yang berlangsung kontinyu menggunakan bahan isian abu layang teraktivasi, dalam bentuk serbuk dan granular, pada laju alir influen yang bervariasi. Hasilnya, laju alir mempengaruhi nilai kapasitas (qo), konstanta thomas (KtH) dan waktu breakthrough.Kata Kunci : Pb2+ , adsorpsi, abu layang, breakthroughCoal is one of the inexpensive alternative energy. Therefore, the usage of coal in indonesia has been increased every year. It produces waste that can pollute the environment including gases waste such as CO2, NOX, CO, SO2, hydrocarbons and solid waste including fly ash and bottom ash. Coal fly ash is composed of SiO2, Al2O3 and unburned carbon that enables it to act as a potential adsorbent. In this research, the adsorption capasity has increased by thermal activation and used to adsorp Pb2+ ion in wastewater. The adsorption was carried out in packed column contains powder and granular activated fly ash. In the system, flow rate was varied. The results show that flow rate influences adsorption capacity, Thomas constant and breakthrough time.Keywords: Pb2+, adsorption, coal fly ash, breakthrough
PENGARUH SUHU DAN KONSENTRASI RUMEN SAPI TERHADAP PRODUKSI BIOGAS DARI VINASSE Putri, Rr. Dewi Artanti; Tsani, Sunar Tejo
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 4, No 1 (2015): June 2015
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v4i1.3767

Abstract

Vinasse merupakan limbah yang dihasilkan oleh produksi bioetanol yang mempunyai kandungan COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) yang tinggi. Dengan karakteristik tersebut vinasse lebih tepat diuraikan dengan proses anaerob menjadi biogas. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengkaji pengaruh suhu dan perbandingan rumen sapi yang dibutuhkan untuk mendapatkan biogas dengan hasil yang optimum. Suhu mempengaruhi pertumbuhan mikroorganisme dan kecepatan reaksi dalam pembentukan biogas. Rumen sapi adalah inokulum atau starter yang merupakan bahan yang perlu ditambahkan ke dalam sistem digester biogas. Percobaan dilakukan dalam digester volum 500 ml, dioperasikan pada pH 7 dengan memvariasikan perbandingan suhu,yaitu suhu ruang, suhu 50 oC, dan suhu60 oC dan variasi konsentrasi rumen sapi 5%, 10%, 15%. Proses fermentasi dilakukan dengan cara batch dengan pengukuran gas setiap 2-3 hari menggunakan metode water displacement technique sampai gas tidak terbentuk selama 60 hari. Respon yang diambil pada penelitian ini adalah volume gas yang dihasilkan berdasarkan pengaruh suhu dan konsentrasi rumen sapi terhadap produksi biogas. Perubahan suhu dan konsentrasi rumen sapi sangat mempengaruhi produksi biogas. Hasil yang terbaik dari penelitian ini adalah pada konsentrasi rumen 15% pada suhu ruang yaitu sebanyak 370 ml.Kata kunci: biogas, vinasse, suhu, rumen sapiVinasse is the waste generated by the production of bioethanol which has high content of COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand). With these characteristics, it is more appropriate to convert it into biogas through anaerobic digestion process. This study was conducted to assess the effect of temperature and the cow rumen concentration needed to obtain biogas with optimum results. Temperature affects the growth of microorganisms and speed of reaction in the formation of biogas. The cow rumen was used as inoculum or starter material that needs to be added to the biogas digester system. Experiments conducted in the digester volume of 500 ml, operated at pH 7 with varying the ratio of the temperature, i.e. room temperature, temperature of 50 oC and 60 oC, and variations in the cow rumen concentration of 5%, 10%, 15%. The fermentation process was done in batch condition with gas measurement every 2-3 days using the method of water displacement technique until the gas was not formed for 60 days. Responses were taken in this study is the volume of gas produced by the effect of temperature and concentration of the cow rumen production of biogas. Changes in temperature and concentration greatly affects the cow rumen production of biogas. The best results from this study was obtained from the fermentation with the rumen concentration of 15% at room temperature which was as much as 370 ml.Keywords: biogas, vinasse, the temperature, the cow rumen
PEMUNGUTAN BRAZILIN DARI KAYU SECANG (Caesalpinia sappan L) DENGAN METODE MASERASI DAN APLIKASINYA UNTUK PEWARNAAN KAIN Fardhyanti, Dewi Selvia; Riski, Ria Dwita
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 4, No 1 (2015): June 2015
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v4i1.3768

Abstract

Pembuatan zat warna alami dilakukan dengan metode maserasi dengan menggunakan pelarut etanol dan aquades, variasi volume pelarut yang digunakan 75, 150, dan 250 ml. Variasi waktu perendaman 6, 12, 24, dan 48 jam. Serbuk zat warna alami Brazilin dianalisis dengan FTIR dan diaplikasikan pada kain. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan semakin lama waktu ekstraksi dan volume pelarut yang digunakan, maka rendemen yang dihasilkan semakin banyak. Rendemen serbuk brazilin maksimal sebesar 6,316% pada waktu ekstraksi 48 jam menggunakan volume pelarut etanol 250 ml. Gugus fungsi brazilin memiliki ikatan tertentu diantaranya C-H, O-H, C-O, C=O, C=C alkena. Adanya gugus fungsi OH menunjukkan adanya senyawa brazilin. Serbuk brazilin diaplikasikan pada kain dengan teknik celup, zat pengikat seperti tawas, kapur, dan tunjung mempengaruhi kenampakan warna yang dihasilkan pada kain.Kata kunci : zat warna, ekstraksi, maserasi, brazilin, teknik celup.A production of natural dyes can be done by maceration method with using ethanol solvent and distilled water (aquadest), variations of solvent volumes which used were 75, 150, and 250 ml. Soaking times variations were 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours. Brazilin natural dye powder was analyzed by FTIR and applied to industry. The research results showed the longer of the extraction time and the volume of the used solvents, resulted in the higher yield. Yield of Brazilin powder maximum was 6.316% on the extraction time during 48 hours with using ethanol solvent of 250 ml. Functional groups of Brazilin have specific bond among CH, OH, CO, C = O, C = C alkenes. The existence of the functional groups -OH indicates the brazilin compound. Brazilin powder was applied to industry with dye techniques, binding agents such as alum, lime, and lotus (tunjung) which affected the appearance of the fabric color.Keyword : natural dyes, extraction, maceration, brazilin, dye technique.

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