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INDONESIA
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan
ISSN : 23030623     EISSN : 24072370     DOI : -
Core Subject : Science,
This journal presents articles and information on research, development and applications in biomass conversion processes (thermo-chemical conversion; physico-chemical conversion and bio-chemical conversion) and equipment to produce fuels, power, heat, and value-added chemicals from biomass. A biorefinery takes advantage of the various components in biomass and their intermediates therefore maximizing the value derived from the biomass feedstock. A biorefinery could, for example, produce one or several low-volume, but high-value, chemical or nutraceutical products and a low-value, but high-volume liquid transportation fuel such as biodiesel or bioethanol (see also alcohol fuel). The high-value products increase profitability, the high-volume fuel helps meet energy needs, and the power production helps to lower energy costs and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from traditional power plant facilities. Future biorefineries may play a major role in producing chemicals and materials that are traditionally produced from petroleum.
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Articles 12 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 6, No 1 (2017): June 2017 [Nationally Accredited]" : 12 Documents clear
THE INFLUENCE OF STARTER VOLUME AND AIR FLOWRATE IN HOSPITAL WASTE WATER TREATMENT USING AEROBIC FIXED FILM BIOFILTER BATCH (AF2B) REACTOR Prayitno, Prayitno; Saroso, Hadi; Rulianah, Sri; Prastika, Mita
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 6, No 1 (2017): June 2017 [Nationally Accredited]
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v6i1.7952

Abstract

BOD, COD, phenol and ammonia-free in the effluent of hospitals wastewater often exceed the quality standards. This was due to less optimal biological processes to degrade the pollutants. So we need an efforts to find optimal process conditions through the engineering process and the factors that affect the biodegradation of pollutants. On the other hand, AF2B reactor containing biofilter with bee nest shaped has a large specific surface area so as to maximize the biodegradation process of pollutants by microorganisms. While bacteria consortium consisting of several types of bacteria have a greater capacity than a single bacterium in the degradation of pollutants. The research aims to determine the effect of starter volume and air flowrate to decrease the concentration of pollutants (BOD, COD, phenol and ammonia-free) in AF2B reactor batch using a bacterial consortium. The research was conducted in three phase which are the making of growth curve, acclimatization and biodegradation of pollutants in an AF2B reactor batch using a bacterial consortium. The experiment variables are the starter volume (85%, 75%, 65% in volume), and the air flowrate (2.5; 5; and 7.5 liter/min). Materials used are hospital waste water and bacterial consortium. The experiment begins with setting up the AF2B reactor containing biofilter with bee nest shaped and then filled it with a starter from the acclimatization process on a given volume and followed by supplies of air at a certain flowrate. Then hospital waste water and 5% of nutrients were added till reach 10 liters of total volume in reactor. Samples were taken every 30 minutes for up to 360 minutes of biodegradation process. The samples were then analyzed its pollutants concentration (BOD, COD, phenol and ammonia-free). The BOD concentration was analyzed using Winkler bottles method, COD using open reflux method, while phenol and ammonia-free using UV-Vis spectrophotometry method. The results showed that the starter volume and air flowrate affect the decrease of pollutants concentration till reach quality standard, which at starter volume of 85%, air flowrate of 7.5 liter/min and biodegradation time of 360 min can reduce the BOD, COD, phenol, and ammonia-free to 92%, 86%, 88% and 76% respectively.
ADSORPTION OF NICKEL IN NICKEL SULPHATE SOLUTION (NISO4) BY LAPINDO MUD Syarwani, Muchamad; Hadiantoro, Sigit
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 6, No 1 (2017): June 2017 [Nationally Accredited]
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v6i1.7963

Abstract

This research has been carried out to produce adsorbent from Lapindo mud through various activation process, to adsorb nickel from nickel sulfate solution. Several investigations were performed in this research such as characterization of Lapindo mud before and after activation, effect of physical, chemical and chemico-physical activation to Si/Al ratio and determine the most effective method to produce adsorbent with high adsorption rate. Lapindo mud in this research was prepared through several methods such as without activation, calcination at 500 °C for 3 hours, chemical activation with 6 N HCl under reflux for 6 hours, chemical activation with 6 N NaOH under reflux for 6 hours, chemical activation with 6 N HCl under reflux followed by calcination process and the last treatment is chemical activation with 6 N NaOH under reflux followed by calcination process. The object of this research is the Lapindo mud adsorbent ability to adsorb Ni from NiSO4 solution. While activation methods and nickel concentration in this become independent variable. The reduction of nickel concentration efficiency is determined by the nickel concentration before and after adsorption process. The Si/Al ratio of Lapindo mud before activation process was 3.01 and it increase as the mud is activated. The highest Si/Al ratio was found at activation using HCl which is 7.85. Chemical activation using NaOH was found to be the best method to create the adsorbent with adsorption capacity 98.3%.
THE SYNTHESIS OF GLYCEROL CARBONATE FROM BIODIESEL BYPRODUCT GLYCEROL AND UREA OVER AMBERLYST 36 Senania, Astri; Sulistyo, Hary; Prasetya, Agus
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 6, No 1 (2017): June 2017 [Nationally Accredited]
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v6i1.7691

Abstract

The increasing use of biodiesel as renewable fuels leads to the increasing of glycerol amount as a byproduct of biodiesel production. One of the glycerol derivative products that is environmentally friendly and renewable is glycerol carbonate. Glycerol carbonate is commonly used as a raw material for polymers, surfactants, emulsifiers, lubricants, paints, also used in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, the research was carried out by using a batch reactor with a three-neck flask equipped with reverse cooling, thermometers, mercury stirrer, and heating mantle with the conditions of the reaction temperature around 373 – 413 K, mole ratio of reactants of urea: glycerol were 1:0,5, 1:1, 1:1,5, 1:2 and 1:4  and the concentration of catalyst were 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% respectively. Reaction was done for four hours. The results showed that the formation of glycerol carbonate from glycerol and urea using a catalyst Amberlyst 36 is affected by the catalyst concentration, reaction temperature and the ratio of reactants used. The highest glycerol conversion was obtained at 55.07% at a temperature of 393 K with mole ratio of urea and glycerol 1:0,5 and the percentage of catalyst 3% of the amount of glycerol.
BIOFUEL PRODUCTION FROM PALM OLEIN BY CATALYTIC CRACKING PROCESS USING ZSM-5 CATALYST Tambun, Rondang; Gusti, Oktris Novali; Nasution, Muhammad Anshori; Saptawaldi, Rangga Pramana
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 6, No 1 (2017): June 2017 [Nationally Accredited]
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v6i1.8733

Abstract

The depletion of fossil energy reserves raises the potential in the development of renewable fuels from vegetable oils. Indonesia is the largest palm oil producer in the world, where palm oil can be converted into biofuels such as biogasoline, kerosene and biodiesel. These biofuels are environmentally friendly and free of the content of nitrogen and sulfur through catalytic cracking process. In this research, palm olein is used as feedstock using catalytic cracking process. ZSM-5 is used as a catalyst, which has a surface area of 425 m2/g and Si/Al ratio of 50. Variables varied are the operating temperature of 375 oC - 450 °C and reaction time of 60 minutes - 150 minutes. The result shows that the highest yield of liquid product is 84.82%. This yield is obtained at a temperature of 400 °C and reaction time of 120 minutes. The yield of the liquid product in the operating conditions consisting of C6-C12 amounted to 19.47 %, C14-C16 amounted to 16.56 % and the C18-C28 amounted to 48.80 %.
THE KINETICS BOTH OF GROWTH AND METABOLITE PRODUCTION OF X.CAMPESTRIS USING OF 4% LIQUID SUGAR SUBSTRATE FROM CASSAVA HYDROLISATE Djenar, Nancy Siti; Mulyono, Edi Wahyu Sri
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 6, No 1 (2017): June 2017 [Nationally Accredited]
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v6i1.7950

Abstract

X. campestris is aerobic bacteria producing extracellular biopolymers (EPS, extracellular polysaccharide) known as xanthan gum. To determine the technology and the process conditions appropriate to the formation of this product, therefore the understanding of both the kinetics of growth and metabolite production of bacteria is needed. In this research, to assess the growth of X. campestris using the method of calculation of dry cell weight. For determining the kinetics of production of metabolite used substrates of 4% liquid sugar  from cassava starch hydrolysate. From this research was showed that X. campestris maximum growth in NB medium obtained in about 58thhour, at the growth rate of about 0.04 g / hour, stationary phase obtained at the 60th hour with a maximum dry cell weight of 2.7688 g/L and specific growth rate (μ) of X. campestris amounted to 0.043 hour-1. Based on the kinetic curves both on growth and its metabolite production, X.campestris has non-growth associated product pattern. In this case the production of  xanthan gum  occured after cell growth stopped then  its product is a secondary metabolite with highest amount  of 3.73 g / L at 102nd hour, ie the 4th day of fermentation. Overall of this research indicated that  Nutrient Broth (NB) may be used for the growth of X. campestris. But based on the value of μ above, the rate of cell reproduction was still low. Liquid sugar can be used as a substrate to produce xanthan gum. However to increase its productivity, there should be an addition of other carbon or energy and nitrogen sources.
THE PRODUCTION OF BREADFRUIT FLOUR: EFFECT OF HEATER TEMPERATURE TO THE DRYING RATE AND TIME OF THE BREADFRUIT Sari, Denni Kartika; Lestari, Retno Sulistyo Dhamar
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 6, No 1 (2017): June 2017 [Nationally Accredited]
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v6i1.7168

Abstract

The composition of mineral and vitamin from breadfruit is particularly known of having benefits compared to rice which is a main source of carbohydrate consumed by societies. The process of drying is one of the factors that affects foodstuffs quality. The aim of this research was to provide an understanding of drying phenomena from data experiment and discover the influence of drying air temperature to breadfruit drying time and rates. This research was conducted in several stages which are material preparation (breadfruit) by through downsizing process, then weigh the material (breadfruit) once every 5 minutes on each drying air  temperature variations (50 ºC, 60 oC, 70 oC, and 80 oC). The research were conducted using breadfruit with the best drying time which is obtained at 60 0C for 100 minutes. The lowest water content obtained was 0.4%, while the highest drying rate was 0.00144 Kg2/m2.s at 80 ºC of temperature.
ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM FERMENTATION OF ARUM MANIS MANGO SEEDS (MANGIFERA INDICA L.) USING Saccharomyces Crevisiaea Masturi, Masturi; cristina, amelia; Istiana, Nurul; Sunarno, Sunarno; Dwijananti, Pratiwi
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 6, No 1 (2017): June 2017 [Nationally Accredited]
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v6i1.8139

Abstract

The increase of energy needs coupled with the decline in fossil fuel production, requires other sources of energy to meet those needs. One of the solution is using renewable energy. Bioethanol is one of the alternatives to the fossil fuel. This study was aimed at determining the exact mass of mango seeds in producing high grade bioethanol. Bioethanol was produced by fermentation of arum manis mango fruit seed using bakers yeast, Sacczharomyces cerevisiae.  The arum manis mango seeds were known to contain carbohydrate contents of 19.53%. The study was conducted by using different mass of mango seeds 25, 35 and 45 g resectively. The study showed that the samples of 25, 35 and 45 g produce ethanol with concentration of 4.78, 6.64 and 1.48%. These results indicated that the mass of 35 g mango seeds produced highest ethanol content.
THE SYNTHESIS OF CHITOSAN POLYMER MEMBRANE/PVA AS AN ECO-FRIENDLY BATTERY FOR ALTERNATIVE ENERGY RESOURCE Widiarti, Nuni; Sumarni, Woro; Setyaningrum, Lysa
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 6, No 1 (2017): June 2017 [Nationally Accredited]
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v6i1.6880

Abstract

The eco-friendly materials which have not commonly developed as energy storage alternative sources are solid electrolytes. Chitosan is one of the natural polymer potentially used as the material of solid electrolytes. The purpose of this study is to determine the conductivity value of chitosan polymer’s electrolytes-PVA-glutaraldehyde-NH4Br by varying amount of chitosan and ammonium bromide salt (NH4Br). The polymer electrolyte membrane was made using phase inversion method. Electrolyte polymer is made by mixing chitosan, PVA, glutaraldehyde, and NH4Br to become homogenous liquid and then printed it in petri dish. Polymer electrolyte with chitosan variation of 2; 2.4; 2.8 and 3.2 g has highest ionic conductivity of 1.4983 x 10-2 S/cm with the addition of 2.8 g that can be used as the optimum composition. The variations of salt (NH4Br) were 0; 0.2; 0.4; 0.6; 0.8 and 1 g has the highest ionic conductivity in the point of 2.4385 x 10-2 S/cm with the addition of 0.6 g. The characterization result of FTIR shows OH group at the wavenumber of 3362.02  cm-1, C-O group at 1740.43 cm-1, and C=N group at 1542.41 cm-1. Synthesized polymer can be used as a battery that has 0.43 V voltage.
EXTRACTION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM PETAI LEAVES (PARKIA SPECIOSA HASSK.) USING MICROWAVE AND ULTRASOUND ASSISTED METHODS Buanasari, Buanasari; Eden, Willy Tirza; Sholichah, Ayu Ina
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 6, No 1 (2017): June 2017 [Nationally Accredited]
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v6i1.7793

Abstract

The antioxidant has an activity to neutralize free radical compound that the body needs to avoid damage cells and tissues. Phenolic is one of the compounds that have an antioxidant activity. The influences of ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) conditions on phenolic compounds of Parkia speciosa Hassk. leaves were investigated. The effects of temperature (40°C, 50°C, 60°C and 70°C), time (10, 30 and 50 minutes) and material-solvent ratio (1:10, 1:13, 1:15 ) were evaluated based on the yield, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. The result showed that the highest yield (15.82%) was obtained at 1:15 (w/w) of material-solvent ratio, 50°C of temperature and 50 minutes of extraction time for MAE. The highest yield of UAE is 15.53% that sample was obtained at 1:13 (w/w) of material-solvent ratio, 60°C of optimal temperature and 30 minutes extraction time. The highest IC50 of UAE method extract was 52.55 ppm, while the extract obtained using MAE method was 50.44 ppm. UAE is more stable at higher temperatures. Time and solvent which was used more efficient than MAE. Extract of petai leaves (Parkia speciosa Hassk.) were very potential to be used as a source of natural antioxidants because they have IC50 values from 41.39 to 66.00 ppm. Its antioxidants capacity is ranged from strong to very strong capacity.
STUDY OF THE POTENTIAL ANAEROBIC CO-DIGESTION FOR BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM SALVINIA MOLESTA AND RICE STRAW Syaichurrozi, Iqbal
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 6, No 1 (2017): June 2017 [Nationally Accredited]
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v6i1.9017

Abstract

The purpose of this research was to analyze the biogas production from co-digestion of Salvinia molesta and rice straw. Ratio of Salvinia molesta and rice straw was 5:0, 4:1, 3:2. Lab-scale-batch digesters (600 mL) were operated at room temperature (30 oC) and pressure of 1 atm. Total basis of Salvinia molesta and rice straw was 10 gr, water was added with ratio of organic matter:water = 1:7 (w/w), rumen fluid was added as inoculum, initial pH was adjusted to be 7. Fermentation process was conducted for 30 days. The results showed that total biogas volume for ratio of 5:0, 4:1, 3:2 was 6.30±0.00; 32.76±18.32; 107.54±18.51 mL/g VS respectively. The pH of substrate was changing from 7.00 to 6.77±0.19; 6.60±0.14; 6.73±0.09 for all variables respectively.

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