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Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan
ISSN : 23030623     EISSN : 24072370     DOI : -
Core Subject : Science,
This journal presents articles and information on research, development and applications in biomass conversion processes (thermo-chemical conversion; physico-chemical conversion and bio-chemical conversion) and equipment to produce fuels, power, heat, and value-added chemicals from biomass. A biorefinery takes advantage of the various components in biomass and their intermediates therefore maximizing the value derived from the biomass feedstock. A biorefinery could, for example, produce one or several low-volume, but high-value, chemical or nutraceutical products and a low-value, but high-volume liquid transportation fuel such as biodiesel or bioethanol (see also alcohol fuel). The high-value products increase profitability, the high-volume fuel helps meet energy needs, and the power production helps to lower energy costs and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from traditional power plant facilities. Future biorefineries may play a major role in producing chemicals and materials that are traditionally produced from petroleum.
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Articles 15 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 6, No 2 (2017): December 2017 [Nationally Accredited]" : 15 Documents clear
CATALYTIC ACTIVITY OF CALCIUM OXIDE FROM FISHBONE WASTE IN WASTE COOKING OIL TRANSESTERIFICATION PROCESS Widiarti, Nuni; Wijianto, Wijianto; Wijayati, Nanik; Harjito, Harjito; Kusuma, Samuel Budi Wardhana; Prasetyoko, Didik; Suprapto, Suprapto
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 6, No 2 (2017): December 2017 [Nationally Accredited]
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v6i2.8335

Abstract

Calcium oxide was obtained from waste fish bones that has been carried out systematically by decomposition at various temperatures that 800oC, 900oC and 1000oC for 4 hours. Calcium oxide from the decomposition process was characterized using XRD, FTIR, SEM EDX and SAA. The result of XRD Diffractogram showed that the crystallinity increased as the calcination temperature increased. The absorption bands in the FTIR spectra of calcium oxide from calcined waste fish bones shown at 355 cm-1 region indicated CaO vibration, which was reinforced by the emergence of a peak at 859 cm-1. Based on the analysis using SEM EDX, the calcined waste fish bones typically irregular particles and contained dominant calcium element. The low value of BET surface area and the total of pore volume were consistent with the adsorption measurement with SAA. The calcium oxide was applied for biodiesel synthesis from Waste cooking oil through transesterification reaction. The result of the optimization that the calcium oxide was decomposed from waste fish bones at 900oC. It exhibited best catalytic activity in the transesterification of waste cooking oil providing maximum biodiesel yield of 93% at 4% (w/v) of catalyst loading. The decomposition of biodiesel are determined by GC MS that produced methyl palmitate, methyl linoleate, methyl elaidate, methyl linoleolate, methyl stearate and methyl linolenate.
THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND ADDITION OF CAO TO HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM PATTUKKU COAL CHAR GASIFICATION Syarif, Takdir; Sulistyo, Hary; Budi Sediawan, Wahyudi; Budhijanto, Budhijanto
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 6, No 2 (2017): December 2017 [Nationally Accredited]
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v6i2.9760

Abstract

Hydrogen is an environment-friendly fuel and has a high caloric value. Hydrogen as a molecule is not found in nature, but it is found in compounds with other elements. Besides catalytic steam reforming of natural gas, hydrogen can also be produced from thermochemical processes such as combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification. The process of gasification using steam as gasification agent can increase the yield of H2 in the gas products. The objectives of this research are to study the influence of temperature and the addition of CaO on H2 production. This research was conducted in an up-draft reactor for 60 minutes with three different temperatures; i.e. 600, 700, and 800 oC and ratio of CaO:char of 0 and 0.5. Based on this study, the rise of temperature will improve the yield of H2 and CO2 in the gas products. At gasification temperature of 800 oC, the yield of H2 and CO2 is maximum. Moreover, the addition of CaO can improve the char conversion and reduce the concentration of CO2 in the gas products.
EXTRACTION CHARACTERISTIC AND MICROENCAPSULATION OF ANTOCYANIN AS NATURAL FOOD COLOURING FROM ROSELLE CALYCES BY ULTRASOUND-ASSISTED EXTRACTION Aryanti, Nita; Nafiunisa, Aininu; Wardhani, Dyah Hesti; Kumoro, Andri Cahyo
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 6, No 2 (2017): December 2017 [Nationally Accredited]
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v6i2.9547

Abstract

Anthocyanins are widely used as a food additive, and further study in production process development is required in order to obtain an efficient and superior process. This article presents the anthocyanin extraction by ultrasound-assisted extraction and the characterization of solid form anthocyanin extract. In addition, a simple kinetic analysis for the extraction process is investigated. Extraction was conducted by ultrasound-assisted extraction with a solute-solvent ratio of 1:4 and 1:8 at a temperature of 30OC, 40OC and 60OC. Anthocyanin content was analyzed by UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Drying process was performed by a freeze dryer with the addition of maltodextrin and followed by characterization of powder comprising moisture content, solubility and colour intensity. The result shows that the extraction temperature has an effect on anthocyanins extracted. Temperatures rise increased the diffusion coefficient and triggered the driving force of solids into the solvent. This result had a correlation with the second-order kinetic model where the rate of extraction increases along with temperature rise. Characterization of anthocyanin extracts in solid form showed that the addition of maltodextrin provided better results than the product without maltodextrin. The anthocyanin powder added with maltodextrin fulfils the Indonesian standards for food colouring powders, having a low moisture content (5.6%) and high solubility (91.4%). Moreover, colour intensity analysis of anthocyanin powder showed that the powder with maltodextrin has a tendency of a lighter colour with low value of L *, a * and b *.
THE SYNTHESIS OF GLYCEROL CARBONATE FROM BIODIESEL BY PRODUCT GLYCEROL AND UREA OVER AMBERLYST 15 Suyatmo, Reviana Inda Dwi; Sulistyo, Hary; Sediawan, Wahyudi Budi
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 6, No 2 (2017): December 2017 [Nationally Accredited]
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v6i2.8904

Abstract

The growing utilization of biodiesel as a renewable fuel has generated a large surplus of glycerol as a major byproduct. The prices of glycerol continue to drop in such an oversaturated market. Therefore, new uses are being developed for glycerol to produce value-added chemicals. Among those chemicals, glycerol carbonate has many application in various fields. Glycerol carbonate is mostly used as a solvent in cosmetic and pharmacheutical industries due to its low toxicity, high boiling point, and low vapor pressure. The synthesis of glycerol carbonate from glycerol and urea using Amberlyst15 as a catalyst was being conducted in this study. The reaction was carried out using a batch reactor for 5 hours with the condition of the reaction temperature was around 120oC, mole ratios of reactant of urea:glycerol were 0.8:1, 0.9:1, 1:1, and 1.2:1 , catalyst concentrations were 2%, 2,5%, 3%, and 4%, and mixing speeds were 370 rpm, 525 rpm, and 700 rpm. It is found that the optimum conversion of glycerol was obtained at 120oC with 5 hours of reaction using an equimolar amount of glycerol and urea with catalyst load of 3%. Mixing speed did not affect glycerol conversion. Amberlyst15 as catalyst was also stable enough to be reused at least for three times.
GLYPTAL SYNTHESIS FROM GLYCEROL AND PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE USING ACTIVATED ZEOLITE AS HETEROGENEOUS CATALYST AND ITS COMPARISON TO HOMOGENEOUS p-TOLUENESULFONIC ACID CATALYST Budhijanto, Budhijanto; Wirata, Deddy; Kurniawan, Kurniawan
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 6, No 2 (2017): December 2017 [Nationally Accredited]
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v6i2.12065

Abstract

The abundance of glycerol as the side product of biodiesel has motivated researches on glycerol utilization as a feedstock for more valuable products. This research presents the possibility of producing polyester (glyptal), which is a widely used coating material, from glycerol by esterification using phthalic anhydride. Esterification reaction of phthalic anhydride and glycerol to produce glyptal can be catalyzed by Lewis acid provided by either homogeneous or heterogeneous catalyst. This study compared the performance of activated zeolite as heterogeneous catalyst in the esterification of glycerol and phthalic anhydride with the performance of p-toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA) as homogeneous catalyst. The reactions were carried out in laboratory scale batch reactor. The kinetics was modeled using Step Growth Polymerization Model. The rate constant obtained from experimental data fitting on the model was correlated with temperature by Arrhenius equation. Both activated zeolite and PTSA exhibited Arrhenius behavior. Based on the comparison of the Arrhenius constants of the reaction catalyzed by each of the two different catalysts, PTSA performed better in term of lower activation energy. Nevertheless, this result did not suggest that activated zeolite was failed. The activated zeolite was successful to make the reaction happen. To reach the same performance as the homogeneous PTSA, the activated zeolite needs to be improved with respect to its cation exchange capacity and also the operational consideration such as the amount of zeolite added per volume of reaction and the intensity of mixing to minimize the diffusion resistance surrounding the zeolite particles.
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF 4-OUTLETS SPRAY AERATOR FOR PROCESSING OF INDIGOFERA LEAVES (Indigofera Tinctoria Linn) BECOMES NATURAL DYE SUBSTANCES Sukadana, Ida Bagus Putu; Rajendra, I Made; Arsani, Ida Ayu Anom; Suastawa, I Wayan
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 6, No 2 (2017): December 2017 [Nationally Accredited]
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v6i2.8045

Abstract

The commonly known natural dye substance processing for traditional clothes, such as batik and tenun (woven cloth) is fermentation. The fermentation process can specifically be continued with extraction to produce indigo paste. The process can be done mechanically, i.e. by stirring process, and chemically. In order to accelerate the production, manual process of aeration can be substituted with jet-spray aerator. The aerator prototype which has been developed is acrylic aerator tube with diameter of 240 mm and thickness of 5 mm. The tube was made 1 m long to provide with a sufficient space for indigo foam. Its bottom part is completed with spiral air hose having five small holes of 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mm diameter uniformly located along the height of solution in the tube. The aerator was designed for the 10 litters of fermentation solution of 1 kilogram indigofera leaves. Based on the mass of indigo paste produced, the optimum working condition of the aerator is achieved on 3.8 m/sec air velocity and supply pressure of 2 bar with duration of 60 minutes. The aeration test indicated operational characteristic was quite good, i.e. Oxygen Transfer Rate (OTR) of 3.6 kg/hour, Aeration Efficiency (AE) of 4.8 kg/kWh and factual Oxygen Transfer Efficiency (OTE) of 44%.
THE PERFORMANCE OF EXTRACTION EQUIPMENT MODIFICATION TOWARD SIZE PARTICLE OF TUBER AND YIELD OF INULIN OF DAHLIA FLOWER TUBER Sundari, Elmi; Praputri, Erti; Marthiana, Wenny
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 6, No 2 (2017): December 2017 [Nationally Accredited]
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v6i2.9451

Abstract

Isolation of inulin from starch generally is done by extraction method. The size of the material to be extracted will affect the extraction process performance. In laboratory scale, the size reduction was done with a knife and the separation of starch from tubers was done by juicer. Temperature fluctuations during the extraction process would affect the yield of inulin, hence juicers and waterbath were found ineffective for larger scale. This research was aimed to design an extractor equipped with agitator blades for size reduction and a temperature controller. Extractor performance was investigated by evaluating agitation time (60-150 minutes), distance between agitator blades on the shaft (5 and 7 cm), number of the agitators, (1, 2, and 3 blades) against the fineness of cut material, starch and inulin content. The results showed that the highest fineness of the samples was achieved at a distance of agitator blade of 7 cm, with 3 agitator blades and agitating time of 150 minutes. The highest yield of starch was 11.7% at size reduction time of 120 and 150 minutes using 3-blades agitator and the distance of 7 cm. The content of crude inulin obtained were by using the extractor was 2.206% and 2.213% by using the water bath. The difference of inulin content was 0.007% so it suggests that the extractor designed in this study can be used on inulin production in larger scale. The efficiency of the extractor was 85%.
EXTRACT OF COCOR BEBEK (KALANCHOE PINNATA) AS A CORROSION INHIBITOR Saputra, Tri Reksa; Ngatin, Agustinus
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 6, No 2 (2017): December 2017 [Nationally Accredited]
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v6i2.7949

Abstract

In this study, Cocor Bebek leaves (Kalanchoe pinnata) extract is studied for metal corrosion inhibitor. 10.3 kg of K. Pinnata leaves produce concentrated extract of methanol, n-hexane and ethyl acetate as much as 65.7442, 36.1452, and 15.2711 g respectively. The concentrated extracts were then used to determine the rate of corrosion. Corrosion rate test showed that extract of ethyl acetate can reduce corrosion rate of carbon steel in NaCl 3.5% from 2.954 mpy to 0.963 and 0.923 mpy using 500 ppm and 1000 ppm of extract consecutively. Corrosion rate of Cocor Bebek extract at addition of 500 ppm ethyl acetate in the solution of NaCl 3.5% is decreasing immediately. It was found that the carbon steel corrosion rate decrease as much 4.857 for 6 hours and continuously shows sharp decline until 24 hours of corrosion time. Corrosion rate is slowly decreasing till reach 1.694 mpy at corrosion time of 168 hours.
ADSORPTION OF METHYL VIOLET DYE BY THERMALLY MODIFIED CEIBA PENTANDRA SAWDUST Astuti, Widi; Fatin, Dwi Maziyyah
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 6, No 2 (2017): December 2017 [Nationally Accredited]
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v6i2.12126

Abstract

The disposal of synthetic dyes into the environment is an important source of water pollution. Methyl violet, a typical cationic dye has been widely applied in industries, including textile industries.The dye causes the bad effect to the aquatic life because these compounds are quite stable and have low biodegradability. It presents an aesthetic problem and reduces photosynthetic activity. In this study, modified ceiba pentandra sawdust has been investigated as an adsorbent for the removal of methyl violet dye from aqueous solutions. The modification has been carried out using heating treatment at 110oC and 200oC for one hour. The FTIR spectra of raw and modified Ceiba pentandra sawdust were recorded using an FTIR technique (Perkin Elmer, USA) by the KBr pellet method. The spectrum was scanned in the range of 400 to 4000 cm-1 wavenumbers. The photomicrography of the exterior surface of raw and modified ceiba pentandra sawdust was obtained by SEM (JEOL, Japan). Batch studies were performed to address various experimental parameters including pH, contact time, and initial concentration for the removal of this dye. The results show that heating treatment increases the amount of methyl violet adsorbed. Effective pH for methyl violet adsorption was 7. A greater percentage of dye was removed with a decrease in the initial concentration of dye. Quasi-equilibrium reached in 30 min. Equilibrium isotherms were analysed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations. Freundlich equation is found to best represent the equilibrium data for methyl violet-modified kapok sawdust system.
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PHYSICAL AND ALKALI HYDROTHERMAL PRETREATMENT IN IMPROVING ENZYME SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SWEET SORGHUM BAGASSE Pramasari, Dwi Ajias; Haditjaroko, Liesbetini; Sunarti, Titi Candra; Hermiati, Euis; Syamsu, Khaswar
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 6, No 2 (2017): December 2017 [Nationally Accredited]
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v6i2.9910

Abstract

Sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) obtained after juice extraction is a potential feedstock for fermentable sugars production that can be further fermented to different kinds of products, such as ethanol or lactic acid. The proper particle size resulted from phsyical pretreatment and different pretreatment processes including water, alkali, hydrothermal, and alkali hydrothermal for improving enzyme susceptibility of SSB have been investigated. After grinding to particle sizes of <250 ?m, 250-420 ?m, and, > 420 ?m the sweet sorghum bagasse was washed to eliminate residual soluble sugars present in the bagasse. Dosages of cellulase enzyme used in saccharification were 60 and 100 FPU/g substrate, respectively. The results showed that SSB with particle sizes of 250-420 ?m had the highest cellulose (38.33%) and hemicellulose content (31.80%). Although the yield of reducing sugar of 250-420 ?m size particles was lower than that of smaller particle (<250 ?m), the former was more economical in the energy consumption for milling process. The yields of reducing sugar obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis of alkali hydrothermal pretreated sweet sorghum bagasse were 1.5 and 0.5 times higher than that from untreated sweet sorghum bagasse at enzyme loading of 100 and 60 FPU/g substrate, respectively. Furthermore, alkali hydrothermal pretreatment was able to remove as much as 85% of lignin. Morphological analysis using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) showed that samples treated with alkali hydrothermal have more pores and distorted bundles than that of untreated sweet sorghum bagasse. Meanwhile, XRD (X-ray diffraction) analysis showed that pretreated samples had a higher crystallinity and smaller crystallite size than untreated sweet sorghum bagasse, which might be due to removal of amorphous lignin components.

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