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Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan
ISSN : 23030623     EISSN : 24072370     DOI : -
Core Subject : Science,
This journal presents articles and information on research, development and applications in biomass conversion processes (thermo-chemical conversion; physico-chemical conversion and bio-chemical conversion) and equipment to produce fuels, power, heat, and value-added chemicals from biomass. A biorefinery takes advantage of the various components in biomass and their intermediates therefore maximizing the value derived from the biomass feedstock. A biorefinery could, for example, produce one or several low-volume, but high-value, chemical or nutraceutical products and a low-value, but high-volume liquid transportation fuel such as biodiesel or bioethanol (see also alcohol fuel). The high-value products increase profitability, the high-volume fuel helps meet energy needs, and the power production helps to lower energy costs and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from traditional power plant facilities. Future biorefineries may play a major role in producing chemicals and materials that are traditionally produced from petroleum.
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Articles 10 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 7, No 2 (2018): December 2018 [Nationally Accredited]" : 10 Documents clear
THE IMMOBILIZATION OF LIPASE FROM MUCOR MIEHEI ON ZEOLITE MATRIX IN HYDROLYSIS OF PALM OIL PRODUCING FREE FATTY ACIDS WITH SOLVENT FREE SYSTEM Moentamaria, Dwina; Chumaidi, Achmad; Hendrawati, Nanik; Girlian, Girlian; Mustika, Meilita Againa
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 7, No 2 (2018): December 2018 [Nationally Accredited]
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v7i1.11399

Abstract

The enzymatic hydrolysis of palm oil can be conducted by using lipase produced from Mucor miehei to produce free fatty acid. This study aimed to compare the usage of lipase as free enzyme and as immobilized enzyme on zeolite matrix in the hydrolysis of palm oil as triglyceride producing free fatty acids which highly needed in various industrial sectors. Immobilization is an alternative hydrolysis reaction due to its usage on repetitive reaction, makes lipase reuseable, hence the whole process becomes efficient, and with moderate operational conditions. Solvent free reaction is applied, because the produced free fatty acids can be used directly in food, health, and natural flavorings industry. The palm oil used in the hydrolysis contains 0.815% initial free fatty acids as palmitate, in which water then added to it in weight ratio 1:3. Each effect of free lipase and immobilized lipase addition is 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, and time reaction is 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 minutes are used as index to determine the amount of free fatty acids produced.  The results showed that Immobilized lipase has better ability than the free one in hydrolysis of triglyceride in palm oil producing free fatty acid with 8% lipase addition and time reaction of 120 minutes. Palm oil hydrolysis using free lipase produced the highest FFA of 1.9747% after the addition of 5% lipase concentrate, with time reaction of 60 minutes. Meanwhile, palm oil hydrolysis using immobilized lipase produced the highest FFA of 1.9747% after the addition of 8% lipase concentrate, with time reaction of 120 minutes.
Pyrolysis of Coconut Coir and Shell as Alternative Energy Source sa'diyah, khalimatus; Rohman, Fatchur; Harsanti, Winda; Nugraha, Ivan; Febrianto, Nur Ahmad
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 7, No 2 (2018): December 2018 [Nationally Accredited]
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v7i2.11393

Abstract

Biomass waste can be used as raw material for bio-oil manufacture. One of the biomass is coconut coir and shell waste, commonly used as a substitute for firewood and handicraft materials. Therefore it takes effort to use coconut coir and shell to increase its economic value. One of the waste processing efforts is through pyrolysis process. Pyrolysis is the heating process of a substance in the absence of oxygen and produces products of solids, liquids and gases. The product of pyrolysis liquid is called bio-oil which can be used as alternative energy source. In this study, coconut coir and shell was pyrolysed as bio-oil. It also studied pyrolysis operating temperature and the amount of yield of bio-oil produced. The pyrolysis process was carried out in a reactor with a pressure of 1 atm and a varying operating temperature of 150 °C, 200 °C and 250 °C for 60 minutes. The reactor was equipped with a condenser as a cooling column. The mass of raw materials used was 500 grams with a size of 0.63 mm. The results of the research show that the higher the temperature, the more volume of bio-oil produced. For coconut coir pyrolysis it was obtained the highest yield of 34.2%, with density of 1.001 g/ml and viscosity of 1.351 cSt. As for coconut shell pyrolysis it was obtained highest yield of 45,2% with density of 1,212 g/ml and viscosity of 1.457 cSt. From the result of analysis using FTIR, the functional group of bio-oil was the most compound of phenol and alkene.
FRACTAL KINETICS ANALYSIS OF ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF SAWDUST USING CELLULASE IN ETHANOL PRODUCTION Megawati, Megawati; Fardhyanti, Dewi Selvia; Prasetiawan, Haniif; Hartanto, Dhoni; Khoiroh, Ianatul; Suwito, Slamet; Kuntoro, Kuntoro
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 7, No 2 (2018): December 2018 [Nationally Accredited]
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v7i2.11398

Abstract

Sawdust is one of the abundantly lignocellulosic materials in the world. Sawdust is considered promosing for ethanol production, because it contains mainly lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose. The drying process was applied to pretreat sawdust to make its degradation process easier. Biodegradation of sawdust was conducted by enzymatic hydrolysis using cellulase. The volume of cellulase in the hydrolysis substrate was varied from 5 to 9% v/v. The sugar concentration produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of sawdust every 1 h was recorded as well as its fractal kinetics analysis. Fermentation using yeast in 5 days was also performed to convert sugar hydrolysate to ethanol. Optimal sugar concentration in hydrolysate obtained was about 0.15 mol/L with cellulase volume of 9% v/v and its ethanol concentration was about 0.059% v/v. Fractal kinetics models by Kopelman and Valjamae which can quantitatively describe enzymatic hydrolysis of sawdust using cellulase were used. However, the result of this study indicated that, at high enzyme volume (9% v/v), Valjamae model was more suitable than Kopelman. The fractal exponent value (h) was about 0.667 and the rate constants (k) were about 0.44, 0.53, and 0.58 1/h at the enzyme volume of 5, 7, and 9% v/v. Thus, it can be concluded that enzyme volumes significantly effect rate constants.
THE EXTRACTION OF NATURAL DYES FROM JACKFRUIT WOOD WASTE (Artocarpus Heterophyllus Lamk) WITH WATER SOLVENT BY USING THE MICROWAVE METHOD Gala, Selfina; Mahfud, Mahfud; Sumarno, Sumarno; Qadariyah, Lailatul
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 7, No 2 (2018): December 2018 [Nationally Accredited]
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v7i2.13254

Abstract

Currently, exploration of natural dyes is increasingly being activated and developed, especially to find natural sources of dyes from different plant species and also to develop natural dyestuff extraction process technology for textile applications. During this natural dye extraction process is done by conventional methods that require a long time and a large amount of solvent. Therefore, it is a necessary alternative to the use of "green techniques" are economical in its use. In this research, extraction of Jackfruit wood waste with the microwave by studying the extraction time required to produce the optimum yield and comparing with the conventional method (heat-reflux extraction). Both of these methods use water solvent. On the microwave-assisted extraction, the optimum extraction time at 30 minutes with the acquisition yield of 3.14% (microwave power 400 watt, the ratio of material to solvent 0.02 g/mL). whereas extraction with heat-reflux method showed the optimum extraction time of 180 minutes with a yield of 3.50%. Identification of groups of pigments contained in the Jackfruit wood waste is known categories tannins, flavonoids, and quinones. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy was used to identify the major chemical groups in the extracted dye. Description of the effects of extraction with microwave and conventional, structural damage shown in a solid surface material using by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Further, to test the application on the fabric dyeing.
AN ANALYSIS OF METAL SURFACE IMMERSED IN BASED LUBRICANT FROM MINERAL OIL CONTAINING VEGETABLE OIL WITH RICE BRAN OIL BASED BIO-INHIBITOR Nugrahani, Ratri Ariatmi; Hendrawati, Tri Yuni; Susanty, Susanty
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 7, No 2 (2018): December 2018 [Nationally Accredited]
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v7i2.11623

Abstract

The need for environmentally friendly chemical products in daily needs encourages the production of its. The green-chemistry concept is using the process and produces chemical products that are ecofriendly. Including ecofriendly chemical products are base oil and additives for lubricants, grease, and fuels. The production is expected to reduce the consumption of mineral and synthetic base oils, so it will be biodegradable and renewable. This study compares the results of analysis of metallic surfaces immersed in the mixture of mineral and vegetable base oil, with the addition of rice bran oil bioadditive, ie epoxidized methyl ester (EME) and hydroxyl alkylbenzene sulphonic acid ester (HASE). The research method consists of preparing HASE; analyzing the effect of HASE and EME bioadditives addition on the mixture of base oil to the changing of metallic weight immersed in the mixture; determining the inhibition efficiency of the EME and HSAE additions; analyzing the metal surface using SEM-EDX (Scanning Electron Microscope) / (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry) to find images of microstructure and chemical compounds contained in specimens, and testing the metal difractogram immersed in base oil mixtures with bioadditive using XRD (X-Ray Diffraction). SEM test results of carbon steel immersed in a mixture of base oil and bioadditives show corrosion in which the metal surface color immersed in EME bioadditive mixtures is brighter. EDX spectra of metal sample surfaces immersed in a mixture of base oil, EME and HASE contain carbon (C) and iron (Fe). The carbon content in carbon steel samples immersed in the mixtures and HASE is higher. XRD test results show Fe2O3 phases in carbon steel samples immersed in the HASE bioadditive mixture are higher than in EME. While Fe3O4 phases in carbon steel samples immersed in the EME bioadditive mixture are higher than Fe2O3 phases in samples immersed in HASE bioadditive mixture.
ANALYSIS OF THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES BRAKE CANVAS WITH BASIC INGREDIENTS OF THE DURIAN FRUIT SKIN AND TEAK LEAVES Masturi, Masturi; Effendy, Suhardi; Gelu, Afrianus; Hammam, Hammam; Fianti, Fianti
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 7, No 2 (2018): December 2018 [Nationally Accredited]
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v7i2.15019

Abstract

The growth of the manufacturing industry in Indonesia affects on the demand of automotive parts. This study aims see the mechanical properties of organic brake canvas made from durian fruit skin and teak leaves. Composite making was done by smoothing durian fruit and teak leaves to become powder. The resulting powder was filtered with mesh 60 so that the particle size is the same so as to facilitate mixing. After that, simple mixing with other ingredients such as magnesium oxide and polyester resin is carried out. The printing process was carried out with a hydraulic press with a load of 4 tons for 3 hours. The brake canvas produced were tested for hardness, wear resistance, and absorbency by varying the percentage composition of the powder of durian fruit fiber and teak leaves. There are five variations in the percentage of composite material composition tested. The results obtained the percentage of the most optimum composition that has a value of hardness, wear wear resistance, and absorption capacity close to the value of the Indonesian National Standard (SNI 09-0143).
EFFECT OF BIODIESEL/DIESEL BLEND AND TEMPERATURE ON 1-CYLINDER DIESEL FUEL INJECTION PUMP PERFORMANCE AND SPRAY PATTERN Anis, Samsudin; Budiandono, Galuh Nur; Saputro, Danang Dwi; Zainal, Z. A.
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 7, No 2 (2018): December 2018 [Nationally Accredited]
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v7i2.11891

Abstract

Biodiesel as a renewable alternative energy produced from vegetable and animal oils can be used as a fuel for diesel engines. However, biodiesel has a high viscosity that affects the performance of the pump, thereby reducing diesel engine performance. One of the ways to overcome this problem is by preheating the fuel. The purpose of this study is to investigate fuel spray pattern and pump performance including capacity, head, and efficiency at various biodiesel/diesel blends (B0-B30) and preheating temperatures of B30 (30°C-70°C) at constant injection pressure. The results showed that pump performance decreased with increasing percentage of biodiesel. The weakest pump performance occurred at B30. Fuel spray pattern did not change too much, except for B30 where the spray angle decreased significantly. Better results were obtained when biodiesel blend of B30 was heated. The highest pump capacity and efficiency occurred at 50°C, while the highest pump head was at 70°C. At 60°C and 70°C, pump experienced an excessive vibration. Fuel spray angle also increased as the preheating temperature rises. The widest spray angle occurred at fuel preheating temperature of 70°C.
Biodiesel Synthesis From Waste Cooking Oil Using CaO.SrO Catalyst By Transesterification Reaction In Batch Reactor Widiarti, Nuni; Haq, Ismi Arinal; Mahatmanti, F. Widhi; Harjito, Harjito; Kurniawan, Cepi; Suprapto, Surapto; Prasetyoko, Didik
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 7, No 2 (2018): December 2018 [Nationally Accredited]
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v7i2.14925

Abstract

CaO is a very good catalyst for oil transesterification reactions into biodiesel, but requires a reaction time of 2 hours to obtain equilibrium. The time of CaO catalysis reaction can be accelerated by modifying the CaO catalyst with SrO. Synthesis biodiesel of waste cooking oil has been successfully conducted by transesterification reaction that used batch reactor assisted by CaO.SrO catalyst. The aim of this study is to determine the characteristics and catalytic activity of catalyst in the transesterification reaction. Catalysts have been successfully synthesized by coprecipitation method with oil to methanol molar ratio of 1:1, and its calcined at 800oC for 3 hours. Catalyst was characterized by XRD to determine the crystallinity. The smaller catalyst crystallinity obtained as the decline in intensity and shifts diffraction angles of CaO modified SrO catalyst. Surface area of catalyst characterized by SAA, that allow surface area between CaO modified SrO by 10.217 m2/g. Transesterification reaction performed on variation time (30, 60, 90, 120, 150 minutes), and the catalysts amount (1, 2, 4, 6, 8% w/v). The optimum condition of catalytic activity in reaction for 2 hours and the catalyst amount is 1% w/v of reactants that produce yield of biodiesel is 96.4%.
THE EFFICIENCY OF DYE-SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL (DSSC) IMPROVEMENT AS A LIGHT PARTY TiO2-NANO PARTICLE WITH EXTRACT PIGMENT MANGOSTANA PEEL (Garcinia Mangostana) WITH VARIOUS SOLVENTS Hardani, Hardani; Hidayatulloh, Alpiana; A., Lily Maesary
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 7, No 2 (2018): December 2018 [Nationally Accredited]
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v7i2.14488

Abstract

The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is one of the photochemical electrical cells consisting of a photoelectrode, dye, electrolyte, and counter electrode. The purpose of using dyes in the DSSC is to extend the absorption spectrum to visible light because visible light has about 96% energy from sunlight. This article presents some experimental data on the nature of absorbance and the conductivity of natural dyes extracted from the plant as an application in the DSSC. Absorbance test using Spectrophotometer UV Visible 1601 PC and electrical properties test using Elkahfi 100 / Meter I-V. DSSC fabrication has been done using dye extract of mangosteen skin pigment (Garcinia mangostana) with a variety of coating technique of Spin Coating and Slip Casting. The results show that natural dyes from natural material extraction have an absorbance spectrum of 380-520 nm range and the greatest conductivity is owned by mangosteen fruit skin pigment (Garcinia mangostana). From the results of the test using AM Simulator 1.5G (100 mW / cm2) diesel simulator, it was found that the volume of TiO2 precursors affected the performance of DSSC solar cells and the overall conversion efficiency was 0.084% for the mangosteen skin dye by slip casting technique and 0.092% for the mangosteen skin dye by spin coating technique.
MODIFICATION OF IRON OXIDE CATALYSTS SUPPORTED ON THE BIOMASS BASED ACTIVATED CARBON FOR DEGRADATION OF DYE WASTEWATER Amelia, Shinta; Sediawan, Wahyudi Budi; Mufrodi, Zahrul; Ariyanto, Teguh
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 7, No 2 (2018): December 2018 [Nationally Accredited]
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v7i2.17174

Abstract

Methylene blue is one of the dyes in textile industries which has a negative impact on the environment. This compound is very stable, so it is difficult to degrade naturally. Methylene blue can be harmful to the environment if it is in a very large concentration, because it can increase the value of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) which can damage the balance of environment ecosystem. Adsorption method by using activated carbon as the adsorbent is one of the most efficient and effective techniques in dye removal due to its large adsorption capacity. However, the adsorption method using activated carbon only removes the pollutant compounds to other media or phases. Other method that can be used includes Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs). This method has the advantage of being able to degrade harmful compounds in the waste through oxidation (oxidative degradation) processes. One method of AOPs is the process by using Fenton reagents. This study was aimed to prepare and characterize iron oxide/porous activated carbon catalyst. The type of porous activated carbon used was carbon from biomass derived carbon with microporous character. This biomass carbon is obtained from renewable natural products, namely coconut shell.The kinetics and adsorption models in the material will be derived and evaluated from the research data. Based on the research, it can be concluded that catalytic degradation is very effective for degradation of dye wastewater. Methylene blue degradation increases with the use of Fe2O3/activated carbon catalyst and the addition of hydrogen peroxide as the Fenton reagent. In addition, the pore structure difference in the catalyst also had a significant effect on the methylene blue degradation reaction resulting in increased capacity of methylene blue degradation reactions.

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