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Jurnal Teknosains
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Core Subject : Engineering,
JOURNAL TEKNOSAINS, is a journal which began publication in 2011, and is published each June and December. JOURNAL TEKNOSAINS is a series of scientific publications in science and technology area from the perspective of a multi and interdisciplinary studies. JOURNAL TEKNOSAINS is an interdisciplinary forum for the publication of original peer-reviewed, contributed and invited articles to improve and enhance science and technology. The journal provides a stimulating and informative variety of papers geared toward theory and practice in the hope that common information shared among a broad coalition of individuals and groups involved in science and technology will facilitate future efforts. JOURNAL TEKNOSAINS published by the Graduate School of Gadjah Mada University. All articles will be subjected to double-blind peer review process following a review by the editors.
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Search results for , issue " Vol 3, No 1 (2013): December" : 8 Documents clear
PERBAIKAN PROSES FERMENTASI BIJI KAKAO KERING DENGAN PENAMBAHAN TETES TEBU, KHAMIR, DAN BAKTERI ASAM ASETAT dan Sri Wedhastri, Donny Widianto, Ajeng Dara Pramita,
Jurnal Teknosains Vol 3, No 1 (2013): December
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (251.407 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/teknosains.6126

Abstract

Most of cocoa beans produced by smallholder farmers were non fermented which can be improved by modifiedfermentation processing. This study was aimed to inverstigate the influence of molasses, yeast Saccharomycescerevisiae, and Acetobacter aceti addition on dried cocoa beans fermentation process.Fresh cocoa beans were dried in a glasshouse and its reducing sugar was analyzed before and after drying. Asmall plastic bucket (20 cm diameter and 30 cm height) with aeration holes was used as fermentation vessel. Driedcocoa beans were soaked in distilled water for 4 hours, inoculated with yeast and acetic acid bacteria cultures, andmolasses were added at two different concentration, i.e, 1 and 1.5 times of reducing sugar lost during drying.Reducing sugar, ethanol, titrated acid, population of yeast, and acetic acid bacteria were monitored duringfermentation. After fermentation the beans were sun dried and its pH and degree of fermentation were determinedto assess the bean quality.The results showed that the addition of molasses mostly at the level of 1.5, S. cerevisiae, and A. aceti increasereducing sugar, ethanol, titrated acid, yeast and acetic acid bacteria of fermentation liquid (pulp). The highestpercentage of fermented beans (68.4 %) was achieved by addition of S. cerevisiae, A. aceti, and molasses atthe level 1.5. It is likely that the addition of S. cerevisiae, A. aceti, and molasses could improve fermentationprocessing of dried cocoa bean.
PENGARUH KHLORHEKSIDIN DIGLUKONAT 2% DAN GLISERIN SEBAGAI BAHAN PENCAMPUR KALSIUM HIDROKSIDA TERHADAP SISA KALSIUM HIDROKSIDA PADA SEPERTIGA APIKAL DINDING SALURAN AKAR GIGI Widowati Siswomihardjo, Emmawati Prawitasari, Diatri Nari Ratih, dan
Jurnal Teknosains Vol 3, No 1 (2013): December
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (468.341 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/teknosains.6127

Abstract

The most widely used intracanal medicament is calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH2). However, the residue ofCa(OH)2 in the root canal must be removed prior to obturation. The residue of Ca(OH)2 in the root canalwalls would result in apical leakage. This is due to the unstable dimension of Ca(OH)2, reduced flowand working time of the sealers, and decreased adhesion of sealers and gutta percha to root canal walls.This study aimed to determine the effect of Ca(OH)2 vehicles and agitation irrigation techniques on theresidue of Ca(OH)2 in the apical third of the root canal walls.Twelve extracted mandibular first premolars were used in this study. The crowns of the teethwere removed at the apical part of cemento enamel junction with a length of 14 mm from the apical.The canals were prepared with a Step Back technique to obtain Master Apical File ( MAF ) # 40. Thespecimens were randomly devided into groups I, the pastes of Ca(OH)2+chlorhexidine digluconate 2%.In groups II, the pastes of Ca (OH)2+ glycerin were applied. Each specimen of the study was sectionedin the sagittal direction, then was photographed under a stereo microscope at 120x magnification. Thepercentages of Ca(OH)2 residue were calculated using UTHSCSA image tool 3 software. Data wereanalyzed using T-test at 95% level of significance.The results revealed that the group of Ca(OH)2+ chlorhexidine digluconate 2% paste showed thelowest number of residual Ca(OH)2.The conclusion of this study was that the vehicles affected the totalresidue of Ca(OH)2.
UJI BIOKOMPATIBILITAS KOMPOSIT POLIVINIL ALKOHOLHIDROKSIAPATIT DENGAN PENGUAT CATGUT SEBAGAI BAHAN PENYAMBUNG PATAH TULANG Alva Edy Tontowi, M. Taha Ma’ruf, Widowati Siswomihardjo, Marsetyawan HNE
Jurnal Teknosains Vol 3, No 1 (2013): December
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1021.062 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/teknosains.6128

Abstract

Bone fracture fixation devices have been using rigid metallic materials such as titanium, titanium-alloy or cobalt chrome. Besides having some advantages, the titanium fixation devices also have disadvantages, such as too high strength and stiffness. This continuously stimulates the bone, causing bone atrophy under the plate, further disrupting the growth of bones, especially in children. Other deficiencies of this metal material is its sensitivity to temperature changes and the spread of metal ions in several organs. Some of these shortcomings led to the need for a secondary operation. Bone fracture fixation devices, such as the poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA), can be absorbed by the body and show some other advantages. However, it also has some drawbacks due to the high crystalline products during the degradation process. Lactic acid monomer released after degradation causes cellular response at the implant site, which facilitates the release of chemical mediators, such as prostaglandine by fibroblasts and macrophages as a cause of bone resorption. Therefore, this study aimed to develop the use of other polymeric materials that have good biocompatibility,appropriate mechanical strength, and can be absorbed by the body, such as Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA). Previous research suggests that the PVA-HA composite with catgut reinforcement has sufficient and stable mechanical strength to be used as bone fracture fixation material. The purpose of this study is to know whether the PVA-HA composite with catgut reinforcement has good biocompatibility without toxicity and hypersensitivity effects in experimental animals. Biocompatibility testing includes local cytotoxicity and type IV contact hypersensitivity test. This type of research is experimental in vivo laboratory using wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus). Testing is done through two phases, in which induction or sensitization phase is done by rubbing PVA-HA composite with catgut reinforced ointment powder on the ears that lasts up to 10 days. After being rested for 3 days, this is followed by a second phase contact (elicitation) on day 14 and observed in the period of 24, 48, and 72 hours. Observations were made macroscopically and ear thickness was measured with a micrometer. Local toxicity testing is done by implantation of PVA-HA composite with catgut reinforcement on the back catgut of wistar rats. After a certain time period, the implant material is opened,examined, and observed histologically under a light microscope. The results showed no discoloration or induration on the animal ears in all treatment and control groups, both for the sensitization and the elicitation phase. One way ANOVA statistical test showed that there were no significant differences in the results of measurements of the thickness of the wistar rats ears from all treatment groups before and after treatment on measures 24, 48 and 72 hours (ρ >0.05). Microscopic examination showed no infiltration of acute inflammatory cells such as neutrophils, basophils or eusinofil, and chronic inflammatory cell infiltration such as macrophages, lymphocytes and plasma cells. It can be concluded that the PVA-HA composite with catgut reinforcement is a material that does not cause toxicity and hypersensitivity in experimental animals, thus potentially can be used as bone fractures fixation material. 
KAJIAN KONSEPTUAL PEMODELAN PERUBAHAN PENGGUNAAN LAHAN UNTUK STUDI ILMU LINGKUNGAN Latuamury, Bokiraiya
Jurnal Teknosains Vol 3, No 1 (2013): December
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3518.255 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/teknosains.6124

Abstract

Modeling is one of the methods in the portfolio of techniques and approaches available to unravel the dynamics of the land-use system. In this perspective, models are used as a learning and communication tool between researchers to formalize knowledge on the dynamics of land-use change. Land-use system is a very complex system, such that computer modeling is needed as a computational laboratory to estimate and test hypotheses about the process of land-use change. One of the major difficulties in multi-disciplinary research is to find ways to express oneself, which are acceptable to all the disciplines involved and free from the connotation of any or all of them. Land-use change models play an important role in exploring possible future developments in the land-use system. This paper attempts to show the methods and approaches to be used as a communication and learning environment for stakeholders involved in the decision making about land-use change systems in the field of environment
METODE PENGENALAN POLA TRABEKULA MANDIBULA PADA RADIOGRAF PERIAPIKAL DIGITAL UNTUK DETEKSI DINI RISIKO OSTEOPOROSIS Evrita Lusiana Utari, Sri Lestari dan
Jurnal Teknosains Vol 3, No 1 (2013): December
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1054.594 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/teknosains.6129

Abstract

Osteoporosis is a sistemic skeletal disease. Osteoporosis examination using the gold standard determined byWHO, namely DEXA, is relatively expensive and the result can not show the bone microarchitecture. Meanwhile,the probability of advanced age women to visit a dentist is relatively high. If the condition of bone mass densitywhich indicate osteoporotic condition can be recognized from the trabecullar pattern of mandible, so the dentistcan participate in early detection of a patient having a risk of osteoporosis. The objective of this research is to getthe pattern recognition method which can be applied to digital periapical radiograph that characterize the bonemass density condition. Combination of Sobel’s edge detection with the binary image has been applied to the image,producing an image showing the mandible trabecullar pattern visually. Supported by fractal dimension value andfind local maxima in the binary image, the pattern can be better distinguished for each condition of osteoporosis,osteopenia, and normal. The value of fractal dimension and find maxima is positively correlated with the bonemass density.
SCAFFOLD BHA/GELATIN DENGAN PELAPIS PVA UNTUK APLIKASI IMPLAN Punto Dewo, Alva Edy Tontowi, MK Herliansyah, dan
Jurnal Teknosains Vol 3, No 1 (2013): December
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2060.228 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/teknosains.6123

Abstract

Hard tissue defect, particularly at the bone structure, is a common problem in Indonesia causing improper function. About 60% of it is caused by defects that occur since birth, and the rest is caused by other factors, such as accidents. To treat these problems, medical doctor usually carry out transplantation or implantation. Implantation is done by filling the bone cavity with biomaterial made from Ca/P-based material, such as hydroxyapatite (HA). In the form of powder, pure HA is difficult to be formed into a certain shape and geometry since this material is brittle and has a high melting point (1400 oc), which is impossible to reach in a surgery environment. Additionally, in the form of macro-porous blocks, they are very weak and easy to break, far from the requirements. In order to form pure HA at room temperature and still fulfill the required strength, other biocompatible materials are needed. In this work, HA, gelatin and PVA were used to form samples. The HA was derived from bovine bone, bioactivity and oteoconductivity. Gelatin was used as a matrix of the composite, whilst Polyvynil Alchohol (PVA) acted as a coating. The HA was derived by calcination of bovine chips at 900 oC for 2 hours, while the gelatin (G) and PVA were supplied by commercial purchase. The ratio of [G/bHA] to distilled water (H2O) was 30%, 40% dan 50% w/v. PVA 0.2% w/w coating was done by dipping the block in liquid nitrogen (N2). Tests were performed by DTS and microstructure analysis was carried out by SEM. The results show that sample with [G/bHA] of 50% w/v gave DTS of 6.219 MPa. This tensile strength matched the strength of human bone from a 62 year old person.  􀀞􀀔􀀆􀀇􀀄􀀋􀀃􀀇􀀆􀀇􀀒􀀋􀀉􀀋􀀆􀀏􀀄􀀔􀀓􀀐􀀋􀀖􀀉􀀎􀀆􀀖􀀋􀀅􀀈􀀍􀀃􀀐􀀆􀀅􀀔􀀍􀀇􀀔􀀄􀀆􀀊􀀉􀀊􀀃􀀐􀀐􀀑􀀆􀀍􀀃􀀄􀀄􀀑􀀆􀀔􀀊􀀇􀀆􀀇􀀄􀀃􀀕􀀉􀀏􀀐􀀃􀀕􀀇􀀃􀀇􀀈􀀔􀀕􀀆􀀔􀀄􀀆􀀈􀀖􀀏􀀐􀀃􀀕􀀇􀀃􀀇􀀈􀀔􀀕􀀙􀀆􀀗􀀖􀀏􀀐􀀃􀀕􀀇􀀃􀀇􀀈􀀔􀀕􀀆􀀈􀀉􀀆􀀅􀀔􀀕􀀋􀀆􀀓􀀑􀀆􀀟􀀐􀀐􀀈􀀕􀀘􀀆􀀇􀀒􀀋􀀆􀀓􀀔􀀕􀀋􀀆􀀍􀀃
MENGGUNAKAN SERANGGA UNTUK MEMAHAMI KEHIDUPAN Martono, Edhi
Jurnal Teknosains Vol 3, No 1 (2013): December
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (307.093 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/teknosains.6130

Abstract

Serangga ternyata memiliki tempat yang sangat istimewa dalam ilmu pengetahuan.Kalau selama ini lebih banyak mengenalnya sebagai jasad pengganggu (Istilah pertaniandikenal sebagai OPT atau Organisme Pengganggu Tanaman dan Istilah kesehatan dikenalsebagai vektor pembawa penyakit), maka dalam ilmu pengetahuan secara lebih umumperan serangga bukan hanya sebagai penyebab kerugian dan kerusakan saja. Serangga amatbermanfaat atau berjasa kepada ilmu pengetahuan dalam menambah khazanah pemahamantentang jasad hidup dan berbagai interaksi yang terjadi pada jasad hidup, termasuk manusia.
MODEL INTEGRASI DESIGN DAN PROSES MANUFAKTUR PADA PERAKITAN PRODUK MULTI-PEMASOK dan Alva Edy Tontowi, Budi Susanto, MK Herliansyah,
Jurnal Teknosains Vol 3, No 1 (2013): December
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (546.776 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/teknosains.6125

Abstract

In Product design process, aspects related to the manufacturing process and supply chain should be considered. The design is produced not only satisfy for consumers needs but it fulfilled the constraints related to manufacturingand supply chain aspects. This research aims to make a model to determine the cheapest product design from both of manufacturing process and supply chain. This research uses binary programming as an approach. The cost aspects used in this research are component’s manufacturing cost, supplier fixed contact cost, assembly operation cost and quality improvement cost. The result of research, a physical product design with the lowest total cost by combining components from several designs and adding the value constraint on the quality specification.

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