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Search results for , issue "Vol 20, No 4 (2002): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan" : 5 Documents clear
DAMPAK PEMBALAKAN BERWAWASAN LINGKUNGAN (PBL) TERHADAP KERUSAKAN TEGAKAN DAN BIAYA PENYARADAN DI HUTAN PRODUKSI ALAM Suhartana, Sona
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 20, No 4 (2002): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (5919.957 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2002.20.4.285-301

Abstract

This paper deals with the results of study on implementing reduced impact logging (RIL) as well as conventional logging (CL), which was carried out in natural production forest under the concession operation of a forest company in Riau in 2001. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of reduced impact logging on possible improvement or securing the stand damage, level of ground exposure, top soil displacement, and cost related skidding productivity.The data collected in this regard were the number of felled trees (stands), number of trees with the diameter of 20 cm or greater, number of damaged trees and poles, ground exposure, top soil displacement, skidding cost, and skidding productivity. The data as such consisted of two main categories, i. e. the one and the other one that resulted consecutively from the implementation of RIL and CL systems. The two-category data were analyzed with respect to their possible differences using at-test.Results of study revealed that the implementation of RIL system brought out more convenient impacts in comparison to the CL, as follows: (1) Level of tree (stand) damage would decrease by about 5.4% (highly significant); (2) Ground exposure decreased by around 9 percent (significant); (3) the decrease in top soil displacement by about 2.4 mm (highly significant); (4) Skidding cost decreased by some Rp 398.98 per m3. With respect to skidding productivity using RIL (compared to CL), there was apparently an increase by about 2.6 m3 per hour. However, such an increase was not significantly different.Based on environmental, technical and economical considerations, the RIL system for future logging operation can be recommended in preference to the CL.
PENGAWETAN LIMA JENIS KAYU UNTUK PERUMAHAN SECARA RENDAMAN DINGIN DENGAN BAHAN PENGAWET CCB Abdurrohim, Sasa; Martono, D
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 20, No 4 (2002): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3665.771 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2002.20.4.303-312

Abstract

Investigation about the cold-soaking treatment has been conducted on five wood species (i.e. keruing, nyatoh, melur, pulai and meranti merah) for housing purposes. The penetrating preservative for this case was CCB (copper-chrome-boron) chemicals. Before being treated. the wood specimens measuring 3 - 5 cm (in length) by 3 - 5 cm (in width) were prepared from each of the five species. Such specimens could not be treated by implementing the conventionally prescribed treating schedule. because the measurement of preservative retention at such schedule should follow the revised standard/schedule which differed from the conventional one. Hence, in cold-soaking treatment using CCB preservative, the specimens of wood species for such purpose had to be modified in their sizes/shapes.Three different sizes/shapes were prepared, i.e. beam, truss, and rafters; and then were allowed to reach their air-dry moisture contents. Afterwards. they underwent cold-soaking treatment using CCB preservative in two different concentrations (i.e. 5 percent and 10 percent). Meanwhile. the soaking durations implemented for each concentration were consecutively 3,5 and 7 days.The results revealed that all the wood species in all three sizes/shapes (i.e. beam. truss. and rafters)could be treated using the revised schedule. Except for meranti in truss and rafter. Related as such. the revised treating schedule for these five species has been appropriately devised.
PENGARUH UMUR POHON MELINA (Gmelina arborea Roxb) DAN PENAMBAHAN ADITIF PADA PROSES SULFAT TERHADAP SIFAT PULP Siagian, Rena M
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 20, No 4 (2002): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2002.20.4.259-269

Abstract

The investigation was aimed at assessing the influence of tree level of maturity and the amount of additive used in the sulphate cooking process on the properties of the corresponding resulting pulp. The trees selected in this regard were Gmelina arborea Roxb., consisting of four levels of maturities, i.e. 6, 8, 10 and 12 years. The additives used in the process were polysulfide (PS) and anthraqinone. The anthraquinone (AQ) was added 0.1 percent, without PS, and in the other cooking PS at 4.0 percent, without AQ. Meanwhile, this modified sulphate process was also conducted with any additive 4.0 percent PS and 0. 1 percent AQ. As a control. the sulphate cooking without both was carried out as well. Other cooking conditions were kept constant, i.e. active alkali 16 percent, sulphidity 25 percent, wood to liquor ratio 1 : 4, maximum temperature 170 °C. and total cooking durations 4 hours.The results revealed that the increase in tree maturity up to 10 years produced pulp with the highest yield. However. the pulp yield decreased when the maturity reached 12 years, which was the case when the pulp was obtained from the 6-years wood material. The use of 0.1 percent AQ additive did not improve the pulp yield but decreased the kappa number. The highest yield was obtained at 4. 0 percent PS additive, followed by the one using the combination of 4. 0 percent PS and 0.1 percent AQ.Melina wood from the corresponding 6 year old trees appeared technically suitable as raw material for pulp, since it strength was fairly high to meet the Indonesian National Standard (SNI) for the one from long-fibered softwood. Besides that. the use of additive improved the strength of pulp.
KAJIAN KETERSEDIAAN KAYU BAKAR PADA PENGRAJIN GULA MERAH Nurhayati, Tjutju; Endom, Wesman; Dadan, Dadan
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 20, No 4 (2002): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2002.20.4.271-284

Abstract

A survey pertaining to the topic as such has been conducted in three particular locations, where the sugar industries that consume fuel wood were situated, i.e. Jasinga (West Java), Gombong (East Java). and Karangasem (Bali). The inherent data were collected using the cluster-plot method to figure out the potential of available firewood in the community land. The main data covered the amount of organic foliage debris (i.e. twigs, small branches, etc.) which fall off the tree stands naturally, the potential volume of stands, and their regeneration rate to provide a reserve fuel wood which can be available whenever ii is needed. Meanwhile, the supplementary data were the firewood consumption, cooking stove efficiency, palm-sugar production, and palm-sugar yield and qualities, which in all were obtained through a trial observation in the field.The results revealed that the availabilities of foliage debris (biomass wastes) that fell-off to thetree base (ground) and of firewood from the branch-free portions of the upper tree stands, in percentage of the amount required by the industries, were consecutively 0.20- and 0.61-%ha (Karangasem), 0.02- and 0.63-%/ha (Gombong), and 4. 78- and 1. 17-%/ha (Jasinga). With respect to the area, Karang asam and Jasinga showed adequate availability of biomass wastes, but lack of firewood occurred in Gombong since the available stock was only around 70 %. Such high consumption of firewood was due to the fact that there were about 7160 palm-sugar industries in Gombong, while in Karangasem and Jasinga were only 550 and 65 industries. respectively.The highest consumption offirewood-derived energy was in Jasinga (219.33 GJ/m3), followed in decreasing order, i.e. 198.00 GJ/m3 in Gombong and l44.44 GJ/m3(as the lowest) in Karangasem. The high-energy consumption in Jasinga was brought about by the use of low-efficiency stove (i.e. 15. 07 %). Meanwhile, the efficiencies of the ones in Combong and Karangasem were significantly higher, i.e. 18. 62 and 30.12 percent, respectively. The consumptions of firewood per household per year in such three locations were 2100 kg (Karangasem), 3924 kg (Gombong). and Jasinga (3456 kg).The highest yield (recovery) of palm sugar was obtained from the cooking of arenga juice (55.56%), while the lowest from palm juice (8. 77 %). About the qualities, based on the results of chemical analysis which covered the carbohydrate, water, ash, P. Ca, and Fe, and calorific values, the palm sugar from lontar juice was regarded as the best.followed by the ones from palm and arenga juices. One way to cope with the continual consumption of firewood was through the planting of tree species which are able to produce high-energy firewood and take short-rotation growth periods, such as kaliandra, lamtoro, and sengon. As such, the minimum area of the planting sites, as an example.for lamtoro should be 178 ha (in Karangasem), 4494 ha (Gombong), and 37 ha (Jasinga).
UJI COBA PENGELUARAN KAYU DI HUTAN TANAMAN PULAU LAUT DENGAN SISTEM KABEL LAYANG P3HH20 YANG DISEMPURNAKAN Dulsalam, Dulsalam; Tinambunan, Djaban
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 20, No 4 (2002): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2002.20.4.313-331

Abstract

log extraction in undulating forest areas needs special attention. Forest Products Research Centre has made improvement on P3HH20 skyline system designed for extracting log on undulating area. The equipment consists of three main parts such as power machine unit, wire rope and its auxillary and carriage intended to guide log movement. At the first time, the capacity of the equipment was only 0.308 m3/round trip. In 1998, the equipment was improved and then in 1999 was tried to extract logs in forest plantation of PT Inhutani II. Pulau Laut. South Kalimantan. The choice of the location was done purposively. The objective is to prove whether the impoved P3HH20 skyline system is suitable for extracting log in plantation forest area having undulating terrain. The research results showed that:1. The use of improved P3HH20 skyline cable system for log extraction in plantation forest Pulau Laut provides promising suitability with still relatively low productivity,2. log diameter extracted ranged from 17 to 43 cm with an average of 23 cm while log length extracted ranged from 8 m to 12 m with an average of 11 m.3. log volume extracted varied from 0.026 to 0.309 m3/round trip with an average of 0.160 m3/round trip.4. Effective log extraction productivities ranged from 1.404 to 2.810 m3 (hour with an average of 1.980 m3/hour while the total log extraction productivities varied from 0.485 to 1.080 m3/hour with an average of 0.885 m/hour.5. The average of log extraction cost was Rp 23.572/m3.6. To increase log extraction productivity. it is suggested that further improvement on ballast and endless cable need to be done. as well as further trial infield operations.

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