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Search results for , issue "Vol 20, No 5 (2002): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan" : 5 Documents clear
ANALISIS TEKNIS DAN EKONOMIS PRODUKSI ARANG AKTIF INDUSTRI PEDESAAN Nurhayati, Tjutju; Saepuloh, Saepuloh; Sylviani, Sylviani
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 20, No 5 (2002): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (4970.728 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2002.20.5.353-366

Abstract

The objectives of this trial was to produce activated charcoal from 5 raw material species which are abundantly potential. The production was conducted in an experimentally designed kiln, expectedly appropriate as a manufacturing prototype of activated charcoal for the inherent endeavors or small-scale village industries, which would be feasible technically, economically, and environmentally. The parameters related to the technical analysis covered the manufacture of charcoal from three wood species (bakau, mangium, and tusam) and coconut shell; analysis on raw material for such charcoal and on the mixed charcoal from the market; activation process using water vapor and air at consecutively 0.25 bar and 4-5 atmospheric pressures, with the temperature as high as 705-805°C; and analysis on iod number for the quality of activated charcoal. For economic evaluation, the inherent parameters covered production cost, activated charcoal price, and other related aspects. For the comparative assessments were used activated charcoals from sawdust and coconut shell from industry. The results are as follows:The yields of resulting activated charcoal were varying, i.e 77% from mangrove charcoal as the highest, followed in decreasing order at 73% from coconut shell charcoal, 66% from both mangium and mixed charcoal, until 58% from tusam charcoal as the lowest. lod number of activated charcoal ranged between 472-722 mg/g, with the one from coconut shell charcoal as the highest and the mangrove charcoal as the lowest. The increase of iod number in coconut shell activated charcoal was the highest with six times higher in comparison to the one in its regular charcoal, followed in decreasing order by those mixed charcoal, tusam charcoal. until mangrove charcoal as well as mangium charcoal as the lowest ( i.e consecutively 3.98 times, 3.39 times and 2.45 limes).Compared to the Indonesian requirement standard for activated charcoal, such production trial of activated charcoal seemed to be insatis factory. This is caused by overall iod numbers which were still below 750 mg/g. However, the iod number in activated charcoal from coconut shell in this trial was still higher than the one in the corresponding activated charcoal produced commercial industries (i.e 722 mg/g). Meanwhile, the iod number in activated charcoal from mixed charcoal (654 mg/g) was lower, but still higher than those from tusam and mangium.The retort for the production trial activated charcoal was constructed of stainless steel reactor with 120 liter volumetric capacity and capable of producing 10 kg per day, using regular charcoal as raw material and firewood as a fuel. This retort was designed as a prototype model for the production of activated charcoal for small-scale industries. The method of production expectedly will not bring about enviromental impacts, since the generated vapour/gas during the activation was immediately incinerated in the fuelwood fire pol.The analysis revealed that the production using coconut shell charcoal as raw material in the retort with design capacity of 250 kg per month and 5 years technical life could be sold at Rp 6,000.- per kg of activated charcoal and therefore could bring in some net benefit at 5.5%. Activated charcoal production using mixed wood charcoal did not give significant any benefit. The benefit of activated charcoal production using coconut shell in that period would be even higher.
SIFAT PELENGKUNGAN KAYU TUSAM (Pinus Mekusii Jungh et de Vries) DENGAN DUA MACAM PERLAKUAN AWAL Supriadi, Achmad; Rachman, Osly
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 20, No 5 (2002): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3565.999 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2002.20.5.367-378

Abstract

The investigation on the bending characteristics of wood conducted in Indonesia was still very limited. In contrast, the use of bent wood in the country has intensively increase particularly in furniture industry. The preparation of such bent wood at present still dominated by sawing and planing, thereby resulting in enormous woody wastes. Besides, the strength of the corresponding wood and the beauty of its orienting fiber grains are decreasing sharply.The experiment on the bending of tusam wood taken from either its tapped or untapped portion of trees has been conducted. Tusam wood was bent with the following pretreatments : boiling the wood in the hot water al 100°C, and immersing it in urea solution. Wood bending was also prepared without such pretreatments (as control). The bending was performed at five various radiuses, i.e 80 cm; 56 cm; 45 cm; 25 cm and 15 cm. The evaluation of bending value used an ordinal scale beginning from 1 to 5 were respectively for the biggest to the smallest radius. The results of bending experiment turned out to be the best for the one with the boiling pretreatment prior to bending, and the values were consecutively 2,65; 2,28 and 1,58. The critical events occurred at 15 cm radius for the bent wood with the boiling treatment, and at 25 cm for the ones with urea immersion as well as control. The bending radius significantly effected the bending results, while the tapping and fiber grain orientation did not cause a pronounced effect.The deformation setting in the radius resulting from the bending ranged from 1,93 to 4, 13 percent. The was a trend that the longer the boiling duration, the lower the changes in the bending radius.
KERUSAKAN TEGAKAN TINGGAL, KETERBUKAAN LAHAN, PENGGESERAN TANAH DAN BIAYA PADA PENYARADAN TERKENDALI Sukadaryati, Sukadaryati; Dulsalam, Dulsalam; Sinaga, M
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 20, No 5 (2002): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (6941.624 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2002.20.5.379-399

Abstract

The trees have certain optimal ages to be harvested. Beyond those ages, the value of the trees tend to decline. Therefore, good harvesting plans must be created and then followed by refining to expedite forest sustainability. In reality, forest harvesting operation always cause ecological damage. It can not be avoided, but can be minimized. Log skidding as one element of the harvesting operations need to be controlled to decrease residual stand and soil damages.An investigation on residual stand damage, ground exposure, soil displacement and cost on controlled skidding was carried out at one logging company in Jambi in 2001. The objective of the investigation is to find out information about residual stand damage, ground exposure, soil displacement and cost on controlled skidding which could be useful for managing sustainable forest. The investigation results revealed that: (1) the averages of residual stand damage, ground exposure, top soil displacement, productivity, and cost on controlled skidding were 11.3%, 8.6%, 17.720 cm/10m skidding road, 23.886 m3-hm/hour and Rp 12.740/m3-hm, respectively while those averages on conventional skidding were 20.2%, 12.2%, 22.160 cm/10m skidding road, 30.996 m3-hm/hour and Rp 10,080/m3-hm, respectively; (2) controlled skidding can decrease 8.9% of residual stand damage: 3,6% of the degree of ground exposure; 4.44cm/10m road skidding of level of top soil displacement; (3) controlled skidding system increase the cost of Rp 2,660/m3-hm because the productivity of the system is lower than the conventional one. Nevertheless, for ecological and sustainability reasons in the long run, controlled skidding system is more promising and needs to beimplemented.
APLIKASI ARANG KULIT KAYU SEBAGAI CAMPURAN MEDIA TUMBUH ANAKAN Eucalyptus urophylla dan Acacia mangium Gusmailina, Gusmailina; Pari, Gustan; Komarayati, Sri
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 20, No 5 (2002): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2002.20.5.333-351

Abstract

One of the alternatives that can be used to develop and have significant prospect to improve the critical or degraded land is through the use or application of charcoal. Charcoal can be used as one ingredient in the media to enhance the growth of plants. particularly still at seedling stage and at the field preparation as well. The application of charcoal sould when they are increase soil pH and improve water and air circulation in the soil, there by stimulating the growth of root and the plants.This report deals with research results of applying two kinds of wood-bark charcoal, i.e. bark charcoal from tusam (Pinus merkusii) and mangium (Acacia mangium), on the media for the growth of Eucalyptus urophylla and Acacia mangium seedlings up to 4,5-month period, respectively. The main objective of this research trial was to assess the effect of applying wood-bark charcoal on the growth of the seedlings. The two kinds of wood-bark charcoal were added at varying concentrations, i.e. 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50 percent, and 0% as control.The research revealed that the use of both kinds of wood-bark charcoal at 10-30 percent turned out to he the most optimal or suitable for the growth of the two seedlings. For height growth of Acacia mangium seedlings, the best effect was at the application of 10 percent tusam's wood-bark charcoal, where the height increase in the Acacia mangium seedling reached 13.01 percent. i.e.1.9 times greater than the height growth of the control. About the increase in the diameter of the seedling, the best effect was at 10 percent and 20 percent of either tusam's or mangium's wood-bark charcoal. Such diameter increase were almost similar i.e. 0.45 cm and 0.42 cm for tusam's and mangium's wood-bark charcoals, consecutively.For the height growth of Eucalyptus urophylla seedlings, the best effect was at the application 20 percent of tusam's wood-bark charcoal and 30 percent of mangium's wood bark charcoal. The height increases were at 20 percent tusam's wood-bark charcoal and 30 percent mangium's wood-bark charcoal, i.e. consecutively 1.38 and 1.35 times greater than that of the control. Similar phenomena as occurred to in the height increase in Eucalyptus urophylla seedlings also found in the diameter increases of the corresponding seedlings. In this situation, the height increclse was 0.56 cm. The use of tusam's wood-bark charcoal at JO percent offered the best effect on the growth development ofE. urophylla and A. mangium seedlings, i.e. 0.913 grams and 0.496 grams, respectively. 
SIFAT PEMESINAN LIMA JENIS KAYU DOLOK DIAMETER KECIL DARI JAMBI Malik, Jamaludin; Racbman, Osly
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 20, No 5 (2002): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2002.20.5.401-412

Abstract

This paper deals with a study in machining properties of small diameter log of five wood species, i.e. mahang (Macaranga pruinosa Muell. Arg.), medang kuning (Litsea sp.), bayur (Pterospermum diversifolium Bl.), balam merah (Palaquium gutta Baill.), and merkubung (Macaranga gigantea Muell. Arg) using LPHH (1976) Standard and modified ASTM D 1666-64.The results revealed that in planing aspect, mahang, medang, balam, and merkubung belonged to class I (very good); Bayur to class II (good). In shaping aspect. mahang and balam belonged lo class 1, bayur and merkubung to class II. and medang to class Ill (moderate). In turning aspect, balam belonged to class I and mahang lo class V; medang, bayur and merkubung lo class II. In boring aspects, medang and bayur belonged to class II; balam to class III; mahang and merkubung to class IV (poor). In sanding aspect all wood species belonged to class I. All these wood species may be suitable for furniture and other secondary industry.

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