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Search results for , issue "Vol 21, No 1 (2003): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan" : 8 Documents clear
PENGARUH WADAH DAN LAMA PENYIMPANAN TERHADAP KUALITAS HASIL PENYULINGAN GETAH PINUS DARI SUMATERA BARAT Wiyono, Bambang; Hastoeti, Poedji; Kusmiyati, Evi
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 21, No 1 (2003): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (5798.261 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2003.21.1.45-54

Abstract

Oleoresin  of pine  (Pinus merkusii)  is a Non Wood Forest Products commodity from   West Sumatra. This oleoresin was obtained by tapping  pine  trees with square system followed  by light burning to  stimulate  more oleoresin exudate  to bleed. This research was carried out to assess the effect  of storage time and kind  of plastic laminated  container  for pine resin collected from the field with square tapped method, on rosin recovery rate and its physico­chemical properties.Prior to distillation,  the pine oleoresin was kept in two kinds of containers, i.e.  plastic laminated steel  and plastic laminated  aluminium.   The distillation  of pine  oleoresin kept in plastic  laminated container produced  about  58­63 % of rosin and 20­26 % of turpentine  oil,  respectively. Meanwhile, the distillation products  of pine oleoresin previously  kept in plastic laminated aluminium amounted to 56­63 % of rosin recovery and 22­27 % of turpentine.   Analysis of variance of the experimental  results indicated that container and storage time  caused significant effect on ash content of rosin.  The ash content   of rosin  from  pine  oleoresin after  being  kept  in plastic  laminated steel  container  was somewhat lower than that  of the  one being kept in plastic laminated  steel container.  The storage time of pine oleoresin up to 6 weeks in aluminium  container could produce the rosin still comply with its prime quality and equivalent to  WW (Water White) quality  of rosin. Meanwhile, the storage time of pine  oleoresin in steel container could last only for  4 weeks to meet the requirement to produce at such  quality. The prolonged storage time of pine oleoresin caused the decrease in rosin quality. It is concluded that a plastic laminated container can be used to keep pine  oleoresin up to 6 weeks, and still rendering a prime quality rosin based on the Indonesian National Standard. 
APLIKASI ARANG KOMPOS PADA ANAKAN TUSAM Komarayati, Sri; Gusmailina, Gusmailina; Pari, G
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 21, No 1 (2003): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3858.236 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2003.21.1.15-21

Abstract

Compost  charcoal  is a  compounded stuff  of  charcoal  and  compost, which is produced  by composting process. The compost charcoal compound products is a new break through in  the composting  techniques as an attempt to improve  the qualitiy of compost.This experiment dealt with the application  of compost  and  compost charcoal to the  Pinus merkusii seedling,  in the greenhouse  for 3 months period.The results revealed that the use of compost alone 30 %  of total media weight could stimulate the growth of Pinus merkusii seedlings to the level of 1 time higher in height ; 7 times  greater in diameter ; 1,5 times  longer in roots length, and 1,5 times heavier biomass in the  dry weight  than those  of control (i.e.  seedlings without compost  treatment). Comparatively,  the corresponding  figures in the use of compost charcoal compound also at 30 % were consecutively 1 time higher  in height ; 2 times greater  in diameter; 1,5 ­ 2,6  times longer in root  length and 4,6  ­ 6,0 times heavier biomass than the control.The use of compost and charcoal compost both at 30 % of total media weight showed the best effects on the growth of Pinus merkusii seedlings.
PRODUKTIVITAS DAN BIAYA ALAT MUAT BONGKAR EXP-2000 Endom, Wesman; Basari, Zakaria; Sumantri, Ishak
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 21, No 1 (2003): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (8580.338 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2003.21.1.67-81

Abstract

Loading  and unloading works are intermediary activities in the logging operation.  The logs after being felled/cut down in the forest will be of economic values when they cannot be brought to the inherent processing industrie. Light­weight and small­size logs favor manual work in their handling as  long  as  man power  is available. Heavy­weight and  large­size  logs, however,  necessitate an auxiliary heavy­duty equipment,  since the manual work is sometimes no longer effective for loading­related operation, e.g. hoisting, placing, regulating their position, etc. The unloading of such logs, conversely, turns out to be easier, but can pose a dangerous threat. Therefore, cautious care is necessary.In dealing with loading/unloading problems as such particularly in plantation forest,  a special equipment that is simple in design has been devised, called as Exp­2000. The equipment, wich is powered by 11­HP's diesel engine, can also perform the skidding­operation.  The overall cost in devising the Exp­2000 's equipment  was Rp. 50,000,000. The trial test as performed on the equipment revealed the following results:                                                                     .The average loading and loading productivities were consecutively 9.54 m3 per hour and  13.18 m3 per hour.Cost of loading as well as unloading was Rp. 1.597,48 per m3.The average skidding productivity was 0.5053 m3.hm/hour with skidding cost at Rp 30,160 per m3.The skidding cost might be reduced to Rp.  21,165 per  m3  and concurrently the productivity increased to 2.25 m3per hour,  if the more powerful diesel engine,  e.g.  25 HP were used.
OPTIMASI PEMBUATAN PERNIS DARI DAMAR Dahlian, Erik; Hartoyo, Hartoyo; Yusnita, Erra
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 21, No 1 (2003): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (4593.438 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2003.21.1.23-30

Abstract

Varnish is a combined  liquid of resin oil, solvent,  pigment,  drying agent, and additives. The additives  in this regard are those  when applied on wood's  surface can form  a dry layer which is harder and firmly stick to the  surface.In a effort  to enhance  damar utilization, an investigation has been conducted on  varnishmanufacturing of damar mata kucing of poor quality type. This investigation was intended to apply appropriate and  more efficient  methods of processing of varnish aimed at improving its quality and increasing  commercial  values as­well.  Meanwhile,  the target  of this investigation was to get  the varnish­processing methods with low cost of investment which facilitate its application in the damar producing sites more economical.The results of this investigation  revealed that  the processing methods, implemented  by adopting formula  66,0/24,0 k; 65.5/24,5 s and  65,5/24,5 k; were capable of producing varnish with satis factory quality which comply with the requirement of ICI 's paint factory.  The use of low quality damar mata kucing  mixed  with particular  solvent  composed  of toluene   and  kerosene can contribute to the operation of a small­scale industries economically more feasible.  
PEMBUATAN ARANG AKTIF DARI TEMPURUNG KELAPA, SERBUK KAYU, TEMPURUNG DAN TANDAN KELAPA SAWIT Pari, Gustan; Abdurrohim, Sasa
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 21, No 1 (2003): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (6544.189 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2003.21.1.55-65

Abstract

The aim of this experiment was to learn the properties/characteristics of activated charcoal manufacturedfrom various ligno­cellulosic materials, i.e. coconut shell, oil­palm bunches,  wood sawdust (sawn from mixed forest wood species), and empty oil­palm bunches.At first,  each  of the  four  ligno­cellulosic materials  was carbonized into charcoal  under the particular conditions, as follows : the  materials converted to small particles with 0.3 ­ 0.5  cm size, an  implementing carbonization temperature  at  500oC. The charcoal  was  activated  using  the condition:   activating temperature at 900oC for 30 minutes,  and exercising air flow  rate at 800 ­ I,100oC. The variables implemented in this experiment were kinds of raw materials (i.e.  4 kinds as previously mentioned), and soaking  in 1 percent  NaOH (alkali) for 24 hours which was further compared with the one without soaking.Charcoal properties showed that coconut shell obtained the highest in fixed carbon content,  the lowest in volatile matter and ash.  Results in activated charcoal analyses showed that  coconut shell obtained  the highest  in yield  (50.5%)  while the empty fruit bunch was the lowest (29.3%).  The coconut shell also  obtained the   highest  in fixed  carbon  (85.9%)  while the lowest was saw  dust (69.1%).Soaking treatment showed better quality on most of activated charcoal properties.   Coconut shell gave the highest in benzene adsorption (20.17%) and iod adsorption (881.8  mg/g).  In general,  other raw materials showed low adsorption to benzene, while most of them has been met the AWWA B.600 ­ 78 standard or iod adsorption. The CPO refining showed that  saw dust activated charcoal gave the best  in refining (54.8% transmission)  followed by empty fruit bunch, coconut shell and oil palm shell.
SIFAT-SIFAT KAYU NYATOH (Palaquium obtusifolium Burck.) SEHUBUNGAN DENGAN KEMUNGKINAN PENGGUNAANNYA SEBAGAI BAHAN BILAH PENSIL Mandang, Yance I; Suhaendra, Herpin
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 21, No 1 (2003): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2003.21.1.1-14

Abstract

Jelutung wood (Dyera spp ­ Apocynaceae) has been the main source of pencil slat in Indonesia for more than 30 years. It can easily be peeled with pencil sharpener specially  designed for children usage. However the supply of jelutung wood is no longer sufficient to meet the rising demand for pencil slat. It is therefore necessary to search  for substitute.Previous study with jelutung  and other wood species indicated that the peelability of wood depend not only on wood density but also on anatomical structure. The occurrence of closely spaced parenchyma lines in jelutung enhances the ease of wood to be peeled. The closely spaced parenchyma lines acted as if they were chopped lines inside the wood tissue  that made the wood peelable.  So the prospective substitute should have similar parenchyma pattern with jelutung 's.Nyatoh  (Palaquium spp. ­ Sapotaceae) is known to have closely spaced parenchyma bands similar to that  of jelutung's.  The purpose of the present study is to find out whether or not nyatoh wood could be used for pencil slat, as a substitute for jelutung wood in pencil production.Sample of nyatoh  wood (Palaquium obtusifolium Burck.) used in this experiment was obtained from Sulawesi. The sample was processed into pencil at PT Staedtler Indonesian factory in Serang, using 28 grade graphite lead.  The peelability test  were assisted by primary school student class II, llI, and IV, using simple rotary pencil sharpener. Pencils made of jelutung  were  used as controls. An independent test was used to analyze whether or not nyatoh wood is easy to be peeled,  and whether or not the pee/ability depend on the age of the student and on the wood species  used.  The anatomical structure and the density  of the wood sample were also observed.The result  of experiment  indicated  that nyatoh wood with sample density ranges from 0.40 ­ 0.57 gr/cm3 was easily peeled with pencil sharpener,  either by primary school student class IV, and by class II as well. Further test also indicated  that nyatoh had the same peelability with jelutung wood. So it is possible to use nyatoh wood as jelutung substitute  in pencil  production. Moreover,  the colour of nyatoh is already reddish brown so it does not need staining with colour substance as usually being done to jelutung. Key word:  Nyatoh,  Palaquiurn  obtusifoliurn, wood anatomy, peelability,  pencil slat. 
PENGAWETAN KAYU TISUK (Hibiscus macrophyllus Roxb.) DAN SUKUN (Artocarpus horridus Jarret.) SECARA SEL PENUH DENGAN BAHAN PENGAWET CCB DAN BORON Abdurrohim, Sasa; Nurjaman, Jajang; Hadiane, Anne
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 21, No 1 (2003): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2003.21.1.83-90

Abstract

Tisuk (Hibiscus macrophyllus Roxb.) and sukun (Artocarpus  horridus Jarret.) trees are numerously planted by the rural community in Ciamis regency. The wood  portion of  tisuk  has been much in use for constructions material and furniture, while sukun is intended as multipurpose  plants. Due  to poor or low durability of  the wood portion in both species,  prior  to  its uses, it should be preserved or treated. Preservation  scheme for both wood species     with   particular preservatives, unfortunately, has not yet been available.  Therefore. a through   investigation is urgently required to work  out such a proper  scheme.Inherent  with  such, ninety  pieces or wood  samples, measuring of 5 by 5 by 30 cm, were  prepared from each  of both  species for the treating  trial. After being dried, the samples  pieces  were treated with CCB (copper-chrome-boron) and boron preservatives by the full-cell process. The preservatives (CCB and boron)  were each  used  in solution at  three varying  concentrations, i.e. 2, 3, and  4 percent. Initial and  final vacuums were  maintained at 600  mmHg  for 30  and 15  minutes respectively. On  the other  hand, the treating phase was employed at  three  variable pressures i.e. 4, 6, and  8 hours, for one hour.The  results revealed  that both  tisuk and  sukun were  satisfactorily treatable with CCB  solution  at 4 and  2 percent concentrations, respectively. For both CCB  treated   wood  species    used under roof and exposed to the open air without ground contact the recommended     pressures were 4 and 8 atmospheres. A schedule treatment 4 and 2 percent boron with 4 atmospheres pressure is respectively recommended  for tisuk and sukun used under roof without ground  contact.
PENGARUH PENCAMPURAN BEBERAPA JENIS KAYU DAN PERUBAHAN SULFIDITAS PROSES SULFAT TERHADAP SIFAT PENGOLAHAN DAN KUALITAS PULP KAYU KARET A, Ridwan; Pasaribu, Pasaribu; Setyawan, Dendi; Winarni, Ina
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 21, No 1 (2003): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2003.21.1.31-44

Abstract

One of the plant species which can be cultivated  and enables the industrial plantation forest to be established  for its  timber/wood  utilization  is rubber  trees. In dealing with  rubber  wood for pulp/paper processing, the residual latexes, despite in small amount, can bring about some nuisances, i.e. the troubles during the cooking, washing, and bleaching, and the appearance of dark pitch­spots on the surface of the resulting  pulp/paper sheet.Inherent wich  such, the main aim of this research was to remove or reduce to  some effective degrees  the  residual  latexes from  rubber  wood pulp  cooked  using   kraft  (sulphate) process  by regulating the sulfidity of the cooking liquor (20,25,30%), and by mixing rubber wood with four other wood species, i.e. sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria), jabon  (Anthocephalus cadamba), tusam (Pinus merkusii Jungh et de Vries), and ekaliptus (Eucalyptus   sp.)  each with their specific gravity of 0.63, 0.30, 0.52, and 0. 78, respectively.Changes in suljidity from 20 to 30 percent brought about significant decrease in the number of pitch­spots, caused by  the  residual  latexes, on  the  surface of  the  resulting  kraft pulp  sheet. Meanwhile,  changes  in mixture between rubber wood and four  other wood species  with relative proportion  (oven­dry weight)  from  100:0 to  50:50,  and finally  to 25:75 brought about also the decrease in the number of pitch­spots.In  the same  occasion, changing the  suljidity from 20  to 25 percent  caused  the increase  in breaking­length from 3170 m to 3615  m (increasing by 14.04  percent); tear factor from 97. 776 to 111.100 (increasing by 13.63 percent); and burst factor from 42.913 to 53.623  (increasing by 24.96 percent).  However,  further  changes in sulfidity from 25 percent  to 30 percent brought  about the decrease in breaking length  and burst factor to  3232 m (decreasing  by 10.59  percent) and 48.631 (decreasing by 9.31 percent), respectively. In another case,  changes in relative  proportion  of mixture between  rubber wood  and four  other  wood  species from  100:0 to 25:75  induced the significant increase in burst factor and folding endurance from 44.163 to 54.357 (increasing by 23.08  percent) and from 39.47  to 83.93  (increasing  by112.64  percent).

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