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Search results for , issue "Vol 21, No 3 (2003): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan" : 7 Documents clear
PRODUKSI BIOGAS DARI LIMBAH PENGOLAHAN KELAPA SAWIT DENGAN PROSES FERMENTASI PADAT Sudradjat, R; Y, Erra; K, Umi; K, Evi
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 21, No 3 (2003): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (6361.359 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2003.21.3.227-237

Abstract

The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the characteristic of biogas produced from the wastes of palm-oil solid fermentation processing, the assessment on its potential prospect was also studied. The wastes consist of the mixture of empty bunches, pericarp, and sludge. The mixing ratio in weight was 1.3: 1.2: 1.0 respectively. The conditions implemented in the fermentation process were temperature (55° C), and content of dry matters or substrate (i.e. mixture of empty bunches, pericarp, and sludge) in the fermentation digester (35 %). The fermentation was conducted either in batch or continuous system. The weight ratios between substrate and inoculum were consecutively 25 : 500, 50 : 500, 75 : 500, and 100 : 500.Results revealed that fermentation in the batch system at 25 : 500 ratio as such afforded biogas with the highest yield (145 ml per liter-hour) and the most intense degradation on the organic matters (32.3 % VS). meanwhile, the fermentation using continuous system at 25 : 500 brought out biogas with the highest production (1623.7 ml per liter-d). Keywords : Palm oil processing, wastes, fermentation, substrate, and inoculum.
ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI MIKROORGANISME DALAM ARANG KOMPOS Komarayati, Sri; Indrawait, Ida
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 21, No 3 (2003): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (4069.469 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2003.21.3.251-258

Abstract

The population and diversity of microorganism in compost charcoal were isolated and identified. The microorganism were prepared in nutrient agar and saboraud agar media. The results revealed that the total population in each gram of compost charcoal were respectively counted 1.78 x 1012 for bacteria and 9.23 x 109 for fungi. Three species of bacteria and fungi were respectively identified; i.e Species II, Bacillus sp and Species V; and Penicillium sp, Fusarium sp and Species A. 
HUBUNGAN ANTARA BERAT DENGAN VOLUME KAYU ACACIA MANGIUM DI SUBANJERIJI, SUMATERA SELATAN: STUDI KASUS DI PT MHP Sianturi, Apul
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 21, No 3 (2003): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (4820.871 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2003.21.3.203-210

Abstract

This study evaluated a method for estimating relationship between weight and volume of log of Acacia mangium. DBH of 50 trees (planted in 1991) in a sample plot in Subanjeriji had been measured, and the trees were then felled and bucked into 2.50 m logs upto a limit diameter of 8 cm. Diameter of each log was measured al both ends, and diameter of log was the mean of both ends diameter. The volume of logs was calculated by using formula of V = π R2 L. The mean of the log volume were 0.0485 m3 and 0.039 m3 for logs with bark and logs without bark respectively, and the mean of the log weight were 0.02846 ton and 0.025298 ton for logs with bark and logs without bark respectively. The relationship between the weight and volume of logs could be drawn by the formulas: B1 = 0.65 V, with t = 100.89 and r = 0.93B2 = 0.59 V1, with t = 94.61 and r = 0.92B3 = 0.56 V, with t = 58.18 and r = 0.82Since t0,01 is equal to 2.338 on 386 degrees of freedom, the coefficient of the three regressions are highly significant. Where B1 is the weight of logs with bark, and B2, and B3 are both the weight of logs without bark, and V and V1 are the volume of logs with and without bark respectively. The smallest convertion from volume to weight (density) is 0,56 ton/m3 that is for weight of logs without bark to logs with bark. Since the raw materials for pulp industry are logs without bark, the convertion from volume of logs with bark lo weight of logs without bark should use density value of 0.56 ton/m3.The staplemeter unit (sm) used by PT Musi Hulan Persada (PT MHP) as a tool for measuring the logs volume is miss used for the mean of tonage of weigt which transported by truck was 43.15 tonnes with the mean of estimated log volume was 77.65 sm. By using density of 0.56 ton/m3 the mean logs volume should be 76.75 m3 instead of 77.65 sm. Therefore the estimated volume should be in m3 instead of sm.
SIFAT FISIS DAN KIMIA BRIKET ARANG CAMPURAN LIMBAH KAYU GERGAJIAN DAN SABETAN KAYU Hendra, Djeni; Winarni, Ina
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 21, No 3 (2003): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2003.21.3.211-226

Abstract

Briquetted charcoal was experimentally manufactured using the mixture of sawdust and woody slab wastes as the main materials. At first, sawdust wastes were carbonized in a semi-continuous kiln into the sawdust charcoal. Meanwhile, carbonized on woody slab wastes was conducted in a drum kiln yielding the slab charcoal. Further, the resulting sawdust charcoal and slab charcoal were mixed in varying respective portion, i.e. consecutively : (80% and 20%; 60% and 40%; 50% and 50%; 40% and 60%). The mixture was subsequently added with tapioca flour as binding agent at 5 percent, then molded, and compressed under 30-ton hydraulic pressure into the briquetted charcoal. In addition, the briquetted charcoal was also correspondingly prepared from I 00 percent sawdust, and regarded as with 0-percent woody slabs (i.e.100% and 0%). Such mixture in varying portions was further asserted as treatment. The resulting briquette charcoal was subsequently examined of its physical and chemical properties, i.e. moisture content, ash content, volatile matter, fixed carbon, density, compressive strenght, and caloric values.The result revealed that the recovery/yield sawdust charcoal was about 24.57-29.16 percent, while that of slab charcoal was 25.26-39.20 percent. Further, the mixture of sawdust charcoal and slabs charcoal at 40% : 60% portion brounght out the briquetted charcoal with the most satisfactory physical and chemical properties i.e. the moisture content of the briquette charcoal was in the range of 2.50-4.12 percent, ash content 13.22-21.41 percent, volatile matter 20.22-21.94 percent, fixed carbon content 56.65-66.36 percent, density 0.412-0.487 gram per cm3, compressive strenght 16.43-38.13kg per cm2, and caloric value 4515-5834 cal per gram.
EFEKTIVITAS FUNGI CIPANAS DALAM BIOKONVERSI TANDAN KOSONG KELAPA SAWIT (TKKS) MENJADI PULP KERTAS KORAN Pasaribu, Ridwan Achmad; Lestari, Setyani Budi
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 21, No 3 (2003): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2003.21.3.189-201

Abstract

Empty oil-palm bunches (EOPB), due to high contents of lignin (24.68 percent) and extractives (5.57 percent), is less economical when it is pulped using the conventional semi-chemical or semi- mechanical process into newsprint pulp. The conventional process is unable to partly dissolve the lignin and ex/ractives effectively, and consequently produces EOPB pulp with undesirable results, i.e. low screened yield, poor qualities, and longer defiberation and fibrillation duration. As one way to cope with it, the EOPB prior to the soda anthraquinone (AQ) semi-chemical pulping should be pretreated by biodelignification.In this regard, the EOPB chips were biodelignified through the inoculation of the raw materials with the Cipanas-strainfungi (CPSOI) as much as 5-and 10-percent (oven dry weight), and further incubated for I0-and 20-days. Afterwards, the fungi-treatedchips were semi-chemically pulped using the soda-AQ process into newsprint pulp after they are cooked in an electrically heated digester. After the cooking, the EOPB chips were defiberized in a Hollander beater, stone-refined, and then fibrillated in a Niagara beater into ultimately the EOPB pulp with the degree offreeness at 300 CSF. The handsheet was further prepared from the EOPB pulp with the basis weight 45 - 50 gram per m3. This experiment was mainly aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of biodelignification using Cipanas-strain fungi on the chemical components, processing properties, and qualities of the resulting EOPB pulp for newsprint. The chemical analysis revealed that the inoculation of the EOPB chips with 10-percent of CPSO I isolat followed by 20-day incubation period brought about the decreases in lignin and extractive contents by 6.32-and-2.61-percent, respectively. Besides such biodelignification also induces the increase in pulp yield (by maximally 3.98 percent), and the decreases in kappa number and energy consumption (by 11.19 and 17.56 percent, respectively). Further, the EOPB 's pulp handsheet for newsprint achieved particular values of tensile index (43.67 Nm/gr), tear index (7.96 Nm2/kg), opacity (93.98 percent) and brightness (58.04 °GE) which corresponded to those of Indonesian National Standard (SNI) No.14-0691-1998 for newsprint.
PENINGKATAN PRODUKTIVITAS KERJA ALAT MUAT-SARAD SERBAGUNA EXP-2000 HASIL PERBAIKAN Endom, Wesman; Tohdjaya, Semedi; Sugilar, Yayan
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 21, No 3 (2003): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2003.21.3.277-289

Abstract

The EXP-2000 is a multipurpose equipment designed for use in logging operation. especially for loading and skidding of logs. In the first trial conducted in 2001, the productivity of EXP-2000 turned out to be very low i.e. 0.872 m3hm/hour. The investment cost of EXP-2000 was about Rp 67.5 million so the cost of operation was Rp. 28,736.25 per hour. After improvement in the performance has been improved: skidding productivity was increased to 3.293 m3.hm/hour and production cost of was reduced Rp 8. 725.29 per m3.In loading operation, the performance of EXP-2000 has been improved by increasing productivity from 3.293 m3.hm/hour to 34.705 m3/hour and decreasing the cost from Rp. 5,315 per m3 to Rp. 828.03 per m3. It means that the implementation of a new improved EXP-2000 is promising both technically and economically due to higher productivity compared to that of using animal (buffalo) and conventional skyline system previously developed by the Research and Development Center for Forest Product Technology, Bogor - Indonesia.
A FOSSIL WOOD OF DIPTEROCARPACEAE FROM PLIOCENE DEPOSIT IN THE WEST REGION OF JAVA ISLAND, INDONESIA. I, Yance; Mandang, Mandang; Kagemori, Noriko
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 21, No 3 (2003): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2003.21.3.259-275

Abstract

Fossil woods in Java Island have been excavated and sold for outdoor ornaments or indoor decoration purposes since 30 years ago. These fossils are in danger of being drained out without known identities, composition and history. This study was aimed to find out the botanical identity and geographical aspect of a newly discovered silicified fossil wood from Banten area in the west region of Java Island. The fossil trunk 28 m in length and 105 cm in diameter was buried in a tuffaceous sandstone layer. The age of the stratum was thought to be Lower Pliocene. A small sample was cut from the outer part of the log and then ground to obtain thin section for anatomical observation. The main anatomical features of the fossil wood are as follows: wood diffuse porous; vessel almost exclusively solitary, vascicentric tracheid present; axial intercellular canal present, distributed in long tangential rows; fibers with distinctly bordered pit; rays heterocellular multiseriate; crystals present in the enlarged parenchyma cells. These features show affinities of the fossil wood to the extant wood Dryobalanops of the family Dipterocarpaceae, regardless of the fact that this genus does no longer exist living in the natural forest of the present day Java Island.

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