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Search results for , issue "Vol 34, No 3 (2016): Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan" : 9 Documents clear
HUBUNGAN ANTARA KADAR EKSTRAKTIF DENGAN SIFAT WARNA PADA KAYU TERAS JATI Lukmandaru, Ganis
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 34, No 3 (2016): Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3297.06 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2016.34.3.207-216

Abstract

Beside for its high natural durability and resistancy of  weather properties, teak (Tectona grandis) wood is also valued for its beautiful grain and colour. Theoretically, wood colour is highly affected by extractive content, particularly in the heartwood. Identification of correlation between wood colour and extractive content was determined through wood colour and extractive measurements on the outer part of heartwood zone. The wood samples were collected from two locations of Perum Perhutani forest plantations, i.e. KPH Randublatung (35 trees, age class III-IV) and KPH Purwakarta (32 trees, age class VI). Samples were cut from bottom part of the trees and then ground into powder measuring of 40-60 mesh. The wood colour properties(CIE-L*a*b, CIE-L*C*h, CIE-X*Y*Z, Munsell Colour Chart and ISO Brightness) were then measured. Solubility of  the teak wood extractives were determined by extracting the powder in ethanol-benzene and hot water respectively. Results showed that the range of colour properties were L*= 40-62; a* = 3-11; b* = 19-31; C* = 20-31; h0= 70-82; X= 10-25; Y= 8-23; Z=4-13; H=5-8; V =3-8; C =3-6; and W (ISO Brightness) = 4-12. Different sample location resulted in different trends of correlation between colour properties and extractive contents. No significant correlation was found between extractive solubles in hot water and colour parameters. In general, the best correlations were encountered between brightness parameters from CIE-L*a*b* or ISO with ethanol- benzene extractive contents (r=- 0.54 or 0.50, respectively).
KARAKTERISTIK BALOK BAMBU LAMINA SUSUN TEGAK DARI BILAH BAMBU ANDONG (Gigantochloa pseudoarundinacea (Steud.) Widjaja) Sulastiningsih, Ignasia Maria; Santoso, Adi; Krisdianto, Krisdianto
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 34, No 3 (2016): Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3502.944 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2016.34.3.167-177

Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the effect of various layer compositions on the properties of 3-layer vertically glued laminated bamboo beam (LBB). Bamboo strips for LBB fabrication were prepared from mature culms (± 4 years old) of andong bamboo (Gigantochloa pseudoarundinacea (Steud.) Widjaja) collected from private gardens in West Java. The strips were pre-treated by soaking them in 7% boron solution for four hours. Three-layer LBBs were manufactured with six different layer compositions, including bamboo combination with wood planks of manii (Maesopsis eminii Engl.) or sengon (Falcataria moluccana (Miq.) Barneby & J.W. Grimes) as the core layer. The LBB was manufactured using Water Based Polymer-Isocyanate (WBPI) adhesive. The glue spread and cold pressing time applied were 250 g/m2  and one hour, respectively. Results showed that the average density, moisture content, thickness swelling, and width expansion of LBB were 0.65 g/cm3; 11.1%; 2.09%; and 1.99%, respectively. No delamination occurred in all samples using WBPI adhesive, which indicates high bonding quality. The average bonding strength and percentage bamboo failure (dry test) of  LBB were 61.6 kg/cm2  and 90%, respectively. The physical and mechanical properties of LBB were significantly affected by the layer composition. The presence of wood laminates as the core layer of LBB and the cross wide orientation of the core layer decreased mechanical properties of LBB. On the contrary, the presence of cross-layer in LBB structure increased dimensional stability of the produced LBB.Three-layer thick laminated bamboo beam made of vertically glued andong bamboo strips with various constituted layer  composition and  all constitued layers laminated together in parallel grain direction had strength values comparable to those of class II of solid wood strength, eventhough the core layer was made of sengon or manii planks.
REKAYASA PROSES SINTESIS PIPERONAL DARI KULIT LAWANG (Cinnamomum culilawan Blume) SEBAGAI PREKURSOR OBAT KANKER Delvis Kapelle, Imanuel Berly; Irawadi, Tun Tedja; Rusli, Meika Syahbana; Mangunwidjaja, Djumali; Mas'ud, Zainal Alim
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 34, No 3 (2016): Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2902.466 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2016.34.3.217-229

Abstract

Piperonal as a precursor of cancer drug (Curcumin analogues) can be synthesized from extract of lawang’s bark (Cinnamomum culilawan Blume) with multiple stages, among others: isolation of  essential oils, isolation safrole, safrole isomerization, and synthesis of piperonal. Essential oils were isolated from the bark of lawang (the water content of 46.2%) using a water distillation system with 1/3 volume of high boiler for five hours. Isolation of safrole from lawang bark oils was performed using NaOH solution and purified using reduced pressure distillation system at a temperature of 90-123°C / 1 mmHg. The safrole isomerization was undergone using alkali catalyst (KOH) without solvent at a temperature of 120°C for 8 hours. Oxidation of isosafrol was performed using KMnO4 in acidic conditions using a KTF tween 80 at a temperature below 30°C, and purified using silica gel. Results of isolation yield 0.94% with 14 components were determined through GC-MS, including 67.35% eugenol, safrole 13.96%, 12.61% methyl eugenol, 4-terpineol sineol 1.79% and 1.55%. The isolated safrole yield of 17.21% with purity testing and identification using FTIR, 1H- NMR and GCMS confirmed the product was safrole. The isomerization obtained yield of 77.56% with GC analysis indicated compounds of  cis-isosafrole and trans-isosafrole. The results of  oxidation obtained yield of  65.63% with a purity of 100% by GCMS and the 1H-NMR indicated the product is piperonal.
PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN NATRIUM BISULFIT DAN PENCUCIAN ETANOL BERTINGKAT TERHADAP KUALITAS TEPUNG PORANG (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume) Pasaribu, Gunawan; Waluyo, Totok Kartono; Hastuti, Novitri; Pari, Gustan; Sahara, Emma
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 34, No 3 (2016): Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (5205.546 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2016.34.3.241-248

Abstract

Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume) is an alternative food sources from forest. Porang grows under forest canopy and potentially developed to improve food security. Naturally harvested porang contains high oxalate and less glucomannan. This paper observes possible quality improvement of porang flour in term of whiteness and glucomannan content. Porang collected from Nganjuk, East Java was quality tested and mixed with natrium bisulfite then rinse in ethanol repetitively. Results showed that the addition of sodium bisulfite improved the whiteness of porang flour for about 6.59%. Ethanol dehydration proces was able to improve glucomannan content from 12.86% to 38.11%. Fe and Ca content of mixed porang flour showed no significant difference. Porang flour from Nganjuk contained of 1,6-Anhydro- Beta-D-Glucopyranose; 1,2,3,4-Cyclopentanetetrol,(1.alpha., 2.beta., 3.beta., 4.alpha.); cyclopropyl carbinol; aceticacid(CAS)ethylicacid; and hexadecanoic acid.
PENGARUH KATALIS NiO DAN NiOMoO TERHADAP PERENGKAHAN MINYAK CANGKANG BIJI JAMBU METE Efiyanti, Lisna; Santi, Darma
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 34, No 3 (2016): Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (4074.272 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2016.34.3.189-197

Abstract

Bioenergy is new and renewable alternative energy which is currently developed enthusiastically. Bioenergy could be produced by catalytic cracking method, which is cracking carbon chain to raise energy fraction. This paper observes potential non-food bioenergy of cashew nut shell liquid as an alternative bioenergy source using catalytic cracking method. The effect of impregnated-metals Nikel and Molibdenum catalyst used in hydrocracking of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) into bioenergy was investigated. It focused specifically on two type of natural activated zeolite catalysts: NiO and NiOMoO at temperature reaction of 450oC and ratio feed catalyst of 2 and 4. Catalysts characterization was conducted according to a gravimetric method to determine acidity of catalyst; Spectroscopy FT-IR analysis to get distribution of active site catalyst; X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis to observe crystalinity of catalyst; and Gas Sorption Analyzer (GSA) to measure surface area, porosity and total of pore volume. Bioenergy of CNSL in the liquid-phase, which were predominantly by gasoline, diesel oil, and heavy oil, was further analyzed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine the compound energy fraction qualitatively and quantitatively. The result showed that the NiOMoO (natural activated zeolite) provided an optimal performance with liquid product conversion was about 65-75%, and selectivity gasoline as well as diesel fraction was about 37-47% and 22-31%, respectively. 
KEAWETAN ALAMI 57 JENIS KAYU INDONESIA DENGAN PENGUJIAN DI BAWAH NAUNGAN Jasni, Jasni
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 34, No 3 (2016): Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3278.682 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2016.34.3.179-188

Abstract

Natural durability of  57 wood species originated from several regions in Indonesia was investigated outdoor under coverage. Initially, wood specimens were prepared from each species with dimension of 20 cm (length), 10 cm (width) and 2.5 cm (thickness). Specimens were placed on top of the bricks to avoid direct contact with soil, arranged randomly, and covered with crated-plastic sheets which served as protecting shades. Such experiment was conducted in research forest, Cikampek, West Java. Observation was conducted one year afterwards included evaluating the percentage of deteriorated wood specimens due to wood-destroying organisms. Results showed that after a year, 57 wood species could be categorized into five classes. Further scrutiny on each class revealed that four wood species belonged to class I (very durable); 16 wood species were class II (durable), 15 wood species class III (fairly durable), three wood species class IV (non-durable), and 19 wood species were classified as class V (perishable). 
PENGGUNAAN Phanerochaete chrysosporium PADA PENGOLAHAN PULP BIO-SEMI-MEKANIS KAYU TERENTANG Aprianis, Yeni; Irawati, Denny; Marsoem, Sri Nugroho
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 34, No 3 (2016): Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1708.121 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2016.34.3.231-239

Abstract

Terentang wood (Campnosperma auriculata Hook.f) is relatively low in specific gravity (0.3), hence its utilization as pulp by chemi-mechanical is an alternative process. Energy consumption was reduced by applying lignin degrading fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium) as pretreatment in the chemi-mechanical process. This paper examines the effects of P. chrysosporium incubation periods into chemical components and energy refining consumption of terentang wood. Four percent of NaOH was used in the chemi-mechanical process, and incubation periods studied were 0 (control), 3, 4 and 5 weeks. Results showed that  P. chrysosporium significantly affected the weight loss, chemical properties, and refining energy consumption of terentang wood pulping process. Wood chip weight loss was about 15.95-21.31% and alpha-cellulose raised up to 6.77%. Five weeks incubation time decreased lignin content up to 22.97% and saved the refining energy up to 22.7%.
PEMANFAATAN ASAP CAIR KAYU PINUS (Pinus merkusii Jungh. & de Vriese) SEBAGAI KOAGULAN GETAH KARET Wibowo, Santiyo; Pari, Gustan; Pangersa Gusti, Raden Esa
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 34, No 3 (2016): Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2016.34.3.199-205

Abstract

Smoke liquid is a liquid obtained from smoke condensation during charcoal firing process. The main content of the smoke liquid is acetic acid, hence, can be used as an alternative latex coagulant. Acid in vinegar can reduce the pH of latex and  cause the latex to coagulate rapidly. This paper determines effectiveness of using  smoke liquid as a latex coagulant and characteristics of the treated latex. The smoke liquid  in this study was derived from pine wood. The smoke liquid solutions consisted of  the crude smoke liquid and the diluted solution in various concentrations of 5, 10, 15 and 20%. The smoke liquid solution was then each poured into a container of  latex. Testing was undergone by observing latex coagulating time, coagulate condition, texture, color, odor and homogenity. The most effective smoke liquid which produced the best latex based on its performances was then taken for further testing of physico-chemical properties which included dry rubber content, plasticity retention index (PRI), initial plasticity (Po), final plasticity (Pa), dirt content, ash content, volatile matter content (Vm), and nitrogen content. Results were then compared with the conventional use of formic acid as a control coagulant. The result showed that the crude and distillate smoke liquid solutions with concentration of  10% produced the best coagulantperformances than the other solutions. Rubber latex treated with the crude smoke liquid produced the best physico-chemical properties and could meet requirements of the Indonesian National Standard (SNI) for Rubber Quality.
STRUKTUR ANATOMI ENAM JENIS KAYU ASAL PAPUA Andianto, Andianto; Pangersa Gusti, Raden Esa
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 34, No 3 (2016): Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2016.34.3.249-260

Abstract

Anatomical properties is necessary for wood species identification. This paper observes anatomical properties of six wood species originated from Papua. Wood species studied include: ketapang  (Terminalia complanata K. Schum.); pala hutan (Gymnacranthera paniculata (A.DC.) Warb.); bipa (Pterygota horsfieldii (R.Br.) Kosterm).; kelumpang (Sterculia shillinglawii F. Muell.); manggis/kandis (Pentaphalangium parviflorum); and lancat/lebani (Mastixiodendron pachyclados (K. Schum) Melch.). Anatomical properties were observed according to IAWA (International Association of  Wood Anatomists) checklist. The anatomical main properties observed in ketapang wood were vestured pits, prismatic crystals in non-chambered axial parenchyma cells, and druses. Pala hutan main anatomical properties were the presence of tannin tubes and oil cells which were associated with axial parenchyma. Prismatic crystals in axial parenchyma cells, and rays of two distinct sizes were two main anatomical characteristics of bipa and kelumpang wood. Prismatic crystals in chambered axial parenchyma cells was one of characteristics of manggis wood. Vestured pits and scanty paratracheal parenchyma were two main characteristics of lancat wood. For identification pur poses, bipa wood could be distinguished by banded parenchyma; polygonal alternate pits; and prismatic crystals in non- chambered axial parenchyma cells.

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