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INDONESIA
WARTAZOA Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences
ISSN : -     EISSN : -     DOI : -
Core Subject : Health,
WARTAZOA (Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences) ISSN: 0216-6461 E-ISSN: 2354-6832 is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal published by Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development (ICARD). The aim of this journal is to publish high-quality articles dedicated to all aspects of the latest outstanding developments in the field of animal and veterinary science. It was first published in 1983. The journal has been registered in the CrossRef system with Digital Object Identifier (DOI) prefix 10.14334.
Arjuna Subject : -
Articles 735 Documents
Potency Of Clitoria Ternatea As Forage For Livestock Sutedi, Endang
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 23, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (367.095 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v23i2.715

Abstract

Availability of forage is one of the factors determining the success of ruminant livestock production, especially during drought that resulting in poor livestock condition. Forage legume is an important group of forage plants, containing high nutritive value. One of the legume plants which potential as ruminant feed is Clitoria ternatea. This plant can grow well in all types of soil and dry conditions, also produces seed continously. The production of forage was 25-29 ton DM/ha with seed production was 2.2 ton DM/ha per harvest (42 day cutting interval). The crude protein and crude fiber contents of C. ternatea leaf were 21.5 and 29%, respectively. Meanwhile, the crude protein, crude fat and sugar contents of C. ternatea seed were 25-38,10 and 5%, respectively. This plant can be fed to ruminant as fresh forage or hay with no negative effect on growth performance of animal. The average daily gain of cattle grazing on mixture of Brachiaria mutica grass and C. ternatea was 680 g/day. The value of DM and OM digestibilities of C. ternatea in cattle were 50.15 and 53.47%, respectively. Feeding C. ternatea to dairy cow impoved the content of fat and total solid of milk, meanwhile feeding it to male sheep improved quality of semen.Key words: Clitoria ternatea, animal feed
The Role Of Milk Peptide As Antimicrobial Agent In Supporting Health Status Kusumaningtyas, Eni
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 23, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (424.782 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v23i2.716

Abstract

Antimicrobial peptide is commonly present in all species as a component of their innate immune defense against infection. Antimicrobial peptides derived from milk such as isracidin, casocidin, casecidin and other fragments with variety of amino acid sequence are released upon enzymatic hydrolysis from milk protein К-casein, α-casein, β-casein, α-lactalbumin and β- lactoglobulin. These peptides were produced by the activity of digestive or microbial protease such as trypsin, pepsin, chymosin or alcalase. The mode of action of these peptides is by interaction of their positive with negative charge of target cell membrane leading to disruption of membrane associated with physiological event such as cell division or translocation of peptide across the membrane to interact with cytoplasmic target. Modification of charged or nonpolar aliphatic residues within peptides can enhance or reduce the activities of the peptides against a number of microbial strains and it seems to be strain dependent. Several peptides act not only as an antimicrobial but also as an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, antioxidant, immunomodulator, antiinflamation, food and feed preservative. Although the commercial production of these peptides is still limited due to lack of suitable large-scale technologies, fast development of some methods for peptide production will hopefully increase the possibility for mass production.   Key words: Peptide, antimicrobial, milk
Bovine Ephemeral Fever As A Disease Related To Climate Change Sendow, Indrawati
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 23, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (172.254 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v23i2.717

Abstract

Bovine Ephemeral Fever (BEF) is one of arbovirus diseases infecting in ruminants especially cattle and buffaloes, which istransmitted by mosquito vectors. In general, vector borne disease is also related to climate change, that mosquito as a vector will significantly increase when the environment temperature increases. The disease was found in many countries in Asia, Africa and Australia. The clinical sign of the disease such as fever to paralysis causes economical impact to the farmer, eventhough the mortality is very low. This review will discuss the disease in relation to climate change, which affects vector population that spread the disease. The more population of vector is the higher chance of animal to be infected. This condition describes that the spread of BEF will depend on some factors included the increase of vectors, the availability of susceptible host and vector media facilities, climate condition and supportive ecology. This paper will discuss the feature of BEF, mode of transmission, the impact of environment and climate change, disease prevention and control, and other aspects to prevent further economical impact. It will also discuss how to the transmission, prevention and control of disease BEF. The information can be taken as an input for policy makers to prevent BEF infection in Indonesia.Key words: Bovine ephemeral fever, epidemiology, vector, diagnosis, climate change
Spreading Of Avian Flu On Duck And Its Impact On Social Economy: Lesson Learnt From Avian Flu Cases On Chicken Ilham, Nyak
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 23, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (683.502 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v23i2.718

Abstract

Bird flu disease that attacks duck dismissed the notion of duck immune to bird flu disease. Learning from the experience ofbird flu disease that attacks poultry in the year of 2004-2005, necessary to measure the spread of disease prevention bird flu in ducks. This paper aims to describe the business and trade patterns of duck associated with the spread of avian influenza and predict the socio-economic impact of bird flu on duck farms in Indonesia. Duck rearing patterns mostly are in the extensive and semi-intensive system, that have large potential disease transmission occured between duck and wild. Illegal trade in the crossborder region and imports from countries that re-export it, ias alo become potential as well as the entry point to the bird flu virus in Indonesia. Ducks trade between regions by land transportation is difficult to control as well becomes the potential media to spread of the virus to a wider area. The economic impact of bird flu on duck business occured due to the death of ducks, decline in production and loss of job opportunities, while that on demand reduction was not significant. Small scale farmers that were bankrupt as a result of bird flu outbreaks may require technical assistance and access to capital for recovery. In the future, development of ducks business should be directed at duck farms into a semi-intensive and intensive system to facilitate the control of epidemic diseases.Key words: Bird flu, ducks, impact, social economic
Potency Of Bacteriocin For Animal Health And Food Safety Chotiah, Siti
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 23, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (183.957 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v23i2.719

Abstract

The emergence of antibiotic resistance in many bacteria related to animal and public health stresses the importance of decreasing the use of antibiotics in animal production. The reduction of antibiotic application in livestock can only be achieved if alternative antimicrobial strategies are available. A number of strategies have been explored to control microbial pathogens and to improve growth and feed efficiency in livestock without the use of antibiotics. Bacteriocins have been more extensively studied and proposed as potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics in animal husbandry. Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides ribosomally synthesized by many species of Bacteria and some strains of Archaea. In general, bacteriocins just exhibited bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity against other bacteria that are closely related to the producing strain. The main mechanisms of bacteriocin activity vary from pore formation in cytoplasmic membranes to the inhibition of cell wall biosynthesis and enzyme activities (RNAse or DNAse) in target cells. The use of bacteriocins in probiotic applications, as preservatives, and most excitingly as alternatives to conventional antibiotics is being broadly explored and studied. This review will describe the bacteriocins potency for animal health and food safety, as well as the results of bacteriocin study that had been conducted in Indonesia.Key words: Bacteriocin, animal health, food safety
Variation in Milk Yield Of Dairy Cattle: Evaluation on Correction Factors of Internal Environmental Effects Anggraeni, Anneke
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 9, No 2 (1999)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (162.457 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v9i2.720

Abstract

Correction factors as standard factor are needed to standardize internal environmental effects to evaluate genetic for desired traits of each breed, strain, or individual animal. Some dairy cattle scientists in warm (cold) and hot climate have made observing correction factors (CF) of internal environmental effects mainly for stages (days length) of lactation, calving age, milking ftequency, days open, and dry period for milk and its components (protein and fat). The correction factors should be done due to high variability on  those parameters that occur natually eventhough dairy management have been kept well. Developing correction factors of calving age, days open, and days dry for milk production becomes main discussion in this paper. In Indonesia, correction factors of internal environmental effect for local Fries Holland dairy cattle need to be developed. The appropriate correction factors will be effective to eliminate the variation of milk yield caused by non-genetic effects. So the result of evaluation and selection could be expected to figure out genetic potencial of dairy cattle in producing milk.   Key words: Milk yield, correction factors, and internal environment
Utilization of Yeast as Feed Additive to Improve Ruminant Production Wina, Elizabeth
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 9, No 2 (1999)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (363.021 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v9i2.721

Abstract

Yeast has been known and used in human life long time ago. Recently, yeast is used as feed additive for ruminant in overseas countries. There are a lot of strains and varieties of yeast but its type of strain or variety for ruminant feed is not mentioned. For ruminant feed, yeast is sold as live-cell yeast or mixture of yeast with its medium growth. Yeast can manipulate rumen by increasing cellulolytic bacteria so that the digestibility increased and consequently improving daily gain. The role of local yeast in improving ruminant production in Indonesia has not been deeply studied even though a good response found in the in vitro result.   Key words: Yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ruminant, feed additive
Viral Arthtritis in Chicken: Problems and its Control Dharmayanti, N L P I
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 9, No 2 (1999)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (392.971 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v9i2.722

Abstract

Viral arthritis in chicken is caused by avian reovirus infection. The infection readily occurs via the egg when the breeder hens go through a viraemia resulting in the virus being transmitted to the progeny. Horizontal transmission occurs through the direct contact. This disease causes leg weakness, swelling the hock joint, lameness, gastrocnemius tendon rupture and femoral head necrosis. Affected birds are reluctant to move, unable to seek food or water and rapidly become dehydrated and die. Economic losses may be due to mortality or culling, reduce growth or egg production on to down to carcass downgrading. Demonstration of Reovirus in the tendon sheath by fluorescent antibody technique (FAT) or isolation in chicken embryo liver (CELi). Group of specific antigens are demonstrable by the agar gel precipitin test (AGPT). Reovirus grows readily in the embryonating chicken egg following inoculation via the  yolk sac, chorio allantoic membrane (CAM) or allantoic cavity. Vaccination to induce maternal antibody can be done with inactivated or active vaccines or combinations of both. For prevention of vertical transmission, egg for hatching should be come only from flock known to be free from reovirus infection.   Key words : Viral arthritis, lameness, vaccination
Infectious Bronchitis (IB) Disease and its Control in Chicken Indriani, Risa; ., Darminto
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 9, No 2 (1999)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (274.556 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v9i2.723

Abstract

Infectious Bronchitis (IB) is an acute, highly contagious viral respiratory disease of chicken’s caracterized by tracheal rallies, coughing, sneezing and nasal discharge in young chicks. In addition, the disease may affect kidhney, and in laying flock there is usually a drop in egg production and quality. IB is a major negative economic importance in poultry industry because the disease causes poor weight gain and feed efficiency, mortality in young chicks, reduction in egg production and egg quality in laying flock. IB is distributed worldwide and has been reported to be present in Indonesia. IB is caused by virus of a member of Coronaviridae under genera of Coronavirus. Spreading of IB virus among chickens usually by inhalation. Diagnosis of the disease can be based on the isolation and identification of the virus using embryonated chicken eggs and trachea organ culture. There is no treatment available for IB, so the control of the disease is mainly by vaccination. The existence of multiple serotipes of IB virus requires vaccines which are represent the antigenic spectrum of field isolates. To ensure the results of vaccination program, monitoring antibody titers following vaccination is recommended. The most widely used serological test for antibody monitoring is an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or Haemaglutination Inhibition (HI) test.   Key words: IB, virus, chicken, control
Environmental Management for Poultry Farm Rachmawati, Sri
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 9, No 2 (1999)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (288.822 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v9i2.724

Abstract

Attention has to be given to farming management, housing and waste handling in order to achieve an efficient farming and also to maintain a good environmental quality. A literature review was conducted to find out kinds of waste discharged from poultry farm, the effect of waste to environment and health and its handling and monitoring methods. Environmental problem of poultry farm comes from manure that causes bad odor. The source of odor is from the formation of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide gases, nitrate, and nitrite during decomposition process of manure. Air polluted by those gases can cause disturbance to chicken health and people who live near the farm. Ammonia can inhibit the growth of chicken and cause eyes irritation and respiratory problem to human being. Methods of odor handling using zeolite, lime, and microorganism have been attempted. Those materials, which are added into manure, can reduce the formation of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide gases. The manure can also be used as an organic fertilizer, and the farmer obtains good benefit from it, because it has high nitrogen content. To maintain a good environmental quality, especially from manure odor, continuous environmental monitoring has to be done that involving people who live around the farm. Their perception about manure odor has to be taken into consideration and they are also asked to report any problems caused by the pollution of manure odor.   Key words: Handling, manure, monitoring

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