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Journal of Southeast Asian Applied Geology
ISSN : 25022822     EISSN : -     DOI : -
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Journal of Applied Geology – JAG focuses on the applied geology and geosciences with its key objective particularly emphasis on application of basic geological knowledge for addressing environmental, engineering, and geo-hazards problems. The subject covers variety of topics including geodynamics, sedimentology and stratigraphy, volcanology, engineering geology, environmental geology, hydrogeology, geo-hazard and mitigation, mineral resources, energy resources, medical geology, geo-archaeology, as well as applied geophysics and geodesy.
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Articles 139 Documents
CALDERA ACTIVITIES IN NORTH BALI, INDONESIA -, K. Watanabe; -, T. Yamanaka; -, A. Harijoko; -, C. Saitra; -, I W. Warmada
Journal of Applied Geology Vol 2, No 3 (2010)
Publisher : Geological Engineering Department Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (4203.134 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jag.7274

Abstract

One of the most serious natural hazards is largescaled Plinian eruption that forms caldera. Although the probability to have such large-scaled eruption is very low, the result will be catastrophic if it happens. Thus, it is important to clarify features of caldera system including eruption timing, scale of eruption, precursor activity, etc. With enough scientific information, we may be able to mitigate such very rare but extremely large-scaled geohazard. In Bali Island, Indonesia, there are two caldera systems; Batur caldera and Buyan-Bratan caldera. Batur caldera was previously well studied (e.g. Sutawijaya, 2009), whilst Buyan-Bratan caldera’s geological and volcanological features have not been examined at all. The Buyan-Bratan caldera is about 6 km × 11 km in size and contains three caldera lakes. Wellformed several post-caldera cones are covered by thick soil and vegetation and developed from central to southern part of the caldera. BuyanBratan caldera and post-caldera cones are thought to be older than Batur caldera activities. Geothermal manifestation is confirmed within the caldera. Geological features of the Buyan-Bratan caldera and post-caldera cones were clarified by petrographic and petrochemical analyses. Also, KAr ages were obtained for each volcanic edifice in Buyan-Bratan caldera system. Keywords: Caldera, Plinian eruption, Buyan, Batur, volcano hazards
SELECTING RELOCATION OF LAND USE IN HOT MUD DISASTER AREA BY APPLYING GEO-ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION. CASE STUDY: SIDOARJO, EAST JAVA, INDONESIA Eka Putra, Doni Prakasa; Syauqi, Syauqi; Juwarso, Juwarso; Hendratno, Agus; Wibowo, Handoko Teguh
Journal of Applied Geology Vol 2, No 3 (2010)
Publisher : Geological Engineering Department Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3476.471 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jag.7273

Abstract

Since May 29, 2006, a sea of hot mud has been gushing from the ground in Sidoarjo, East Java, 35 kilometers south of Indonesia’s second largest city, Surabaya. Due to this disaster, approximately thousand of people have been forced from their homes because 600 ha of land and villages were submerged, farmland was ruined, businesses and schools closed as the mud inundated the surrounding area. Relocation of the land uses and supporting infrastructures are become important to support the human survivability and environmental sustainability in this disaster area. In order to select the suitable location for land uses and infrastructures, aspect of environmental geology must be concerned. Geo-Environmental parameters such as geological hazards and geological resources are used to select the suitable relocation area. Evaluation of the suitable land uses is conducted by applying simple overlay rating method. Result of this evaluation shows that the relocation of the land uses can be differentiated into three categories; (i) high risk land use/infrastructure, moderate risk land use/infrastructure and low risk land use/infrastructure. Each of these categories have difference map of relocation suitability, however all maps indicate that the suitable relocation area is in the west-part from the hot mud disaster area. Keywords: Hot mud blast, relocation of land uses, geo-environmental evaluation
OBSERVATION AND SIMULATION OF TSUNAMIS INDUCED BY THE 2003 TOKACHI-OKI EARTHQUAKE (M 8.0) Ohmachi, Tatsuo; Inoue, Shusaku; Imai, Tetsuji
Journal of Applied Geology Vol 2, No 3 (2010)
Publisher : Geological Engineering Department Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1647.802 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jag.7270

Abstract

The 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake (MJ 8.0) occurred off the southeastern coast of Tokachi, Japan, and generated a large tsunami which arrived at Tokachi Harbor at 04:56 with a wave height of 4.3 m. Japan Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC) recovered records of water pressure and sea-bed acceleration at the bottom of the tsunami source region. These records are first introduced with some findings from Fourier analysis and band-pass filter analysis. Water pressure disturbance lasted for over 30 minutes and the duration was longer than those of accelerations. Predominant periods of the pressure looked like those excited by Rayleigh waves. Next, numerical simulation was conducted using the dynamic tsunami simulation technique able to represent generation and propagation of Rayleigh wave and tsunami, with a satisfactory result showing validity and usefulness of this technique. Keywords: Earthquake, Rayleigh wave, tsunami, near-field
LUSI MITIGATION IMPLICATIONS OF BPLS AND OTHER SUBSIDENCE MEASUREMENTS Williams, Van S.; T. Wibowo, Handoko
Journal of Applied Geology Vol 2, No 3 (2010)
Publisher : Geological Engineering Department Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (9548.034 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jag.7271

Abstract

Since the beginning of LUSI eruption, extrusion of mud has been accompanied by deformation of the land surface extending out as much as three km from the main vent. Deformation generally consists of subsidence, however also includes uplift in certain areas and minor surface faulting and cracking as surface blocks of sediment move. BPLS monthly leveling since 12/2007 by laser surveying gives the most reliable measure of vertical movement around the perimeter of the mud ponds. This has been augmented by differential GPS measurements that extends farther out. Subsidence beneath the mud within the levees is difficult to be measured accurately. Rapid subsidence, rising mud, and continuous addition of dirt to maintain the internal dikes make it impossible to maintain a system of benchmarks in the inner area. Shape of the surface beneath the mud can be estimated by indicators such as early GPS measurements, tilting of partially buried buildings, and the rate at which tiers of sandbags have disappeared beneath the mud. We have synthesized all available data to produce a contour map of estimated total deformation for the first 35 months of eruption despite limitations of the data such as variable quality, contradictions, poor point distribution, and observations over variable time intervals. Pre-eruption land surface near LUSI was a nearly level plain about 4 m above MSL sloping about 0.45 m/km NE toward the sea and away from the artificially high channel and levees of the Porong River. Land around the vent has subsided in the form of an asymmetrical shallow funnel where the gentle tilt of about 10 m/km around the margins increases dramatically near the vent. Early ITB continuous differential GPS measurements of horizontal movement indicated a point of maximum subsidence about 250 m northwest of the main vent. Our contours indicate 65 million m³ of mud is presently stored. About 60% occupies the subsidence depression, the rest is confined by the dikes. About 200 m south of the vent is a flexure zone trending generally east-west that separates fast subsidence from slower subsidence to the south. This flexure has caused difficulty in mitigation by blocking flow of mud southward towards disposal points along the Porong River. On the west side of the subsidence cone, flexure toward the vent area has stretched the ground surface, breaking it with steep north-northeast trending fractures that localize methane gas venting. These resulting blocks settle unevenly, creating horsts and grabens with offset less than 15 cm. This fracturing probably extends east beneath the levees although it is not clearly expressed there. Transverse to this pattern near the former toll road bridge is a 100 m-wide zone characterized by the highest subsidence rates outside the levees. This subsidence of about 1.5 m in three years is much less than an estimated 40 m subsidence beneath the mud near the vent, but lies across natural drainage and causes local flooding. At present rates of subsidence, this area will be below sea level in four years and become a pond unless constantly pumped. Until the road realignment is completed, most of the commercial traffic of East Java must travel through this area, and the proposed realignment still lies perilously close to northwesterly expanding subsidence. Increased methane venting and ground cracking has made West Siring Village too hazardous for continued habitation. Keywords: Subsidence, mitigation, LUSI, mud, eruption
ESTIMATION OF SEISMICALLY-INDUCED POTENTIAL TSUNAMI PENETRATION ONTO COASTAL TERRAINS C. Cruz, Eric
Journal of Applied Geology Vol 2, No 3 (2010)
Publisher : Geological Engineering Department Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2086.974 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jag.7269

Abstract

This paper presents a methodology of estimating the inland incursion of tsunamis generated offshore by earthquakes by adapting prognostic equations of wind wave run-up to the earthquakes’ long-period characteristics. Tsunami height is estimated from site-specific historical events. The methodology takes account the nearshore depths, backshore topography, tidal range, and tsunami approach direction. Two project applications are discussed; one involving site development planning for a coastal resort whereas the other involving tsunami evacuation zone assessment for a prospective seaport site. Keywords: Tsunami, run-up, earthquake, planning, site development
LOCAL SITE RESPONSE ON SIMULATED STRONG EARTHQUAKE MOTION AT LAEM CHABANG PORT, THAILAND Pongvithayapanu, Pulpong; Teachavorasinskun, Supot
Journal of Applied Geology Vol 2, No 3 (2010)
Publisher : Geological Engineering Department Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1979.076 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jag.7268

Abstract

Laem Chabang port, located in Chonburi province in the upper Gulf of Thailand, is similar to many of the ports around the world. Some areas of Leam Cha bang port were layered by backfill materials which are highly suspected to soil liquefaction phenomena from the moderate to strong earthquakes. After one of the world’s largest earthquakes of December 26th, 2004 (Magnitude 9.1) occurred in the region off the west coast of northern Sumatra, various existing active faults have been reported to have more potential to generate future earthquakes. Among those active faults, Ranong and Khlong Marui fault zone, distributed around the south and the upper Gulf of Thailand, have been evidenced to have more seismic activities than December 2004. The closet distance between Leam Chabang port and the extension of Ranong fault zone to the upper Gulf of Thailand is approximately 180-200 km. Though not too close, it is still probable to generate strong earthquakes. This study, for that reason, aims to investigate the local site responses of the filled area at Laem Chabang port due to afresh seismic Ranong active fault by employing the equivalent linear ground response analysis. The complete strong earthquake motion time history from the Ranong fault would be synthetically generated and inputted as a bedrock motion underneath the site of interest. The simplified analysis of liquefaction potential assessment based on the results from local site response would be additionally adopted to evaluate the liquefaction susceptibility around this site. The simulation results indicated that some backfill soil layers which have the very low SPT N-value were significantly suspected to liquefy under strong earthquake motions. Keywords: Local site response, synthetic accelerogram, liquefaction potential, backfill, Laem Chabang port
EARTHQUAKE DISASTER MITIGATION USING INNOVATIVE RETROFITTING METHOD J. Tingatinga, Eric Augustus; Kawakami, Hideji
Journal of Applied Geology Vol 2, No 3 (2010)
Publisher : Geological Engineering Department Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3520.464 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jag.7266

Abstract

The Philippines, because of its geographic location, has been battling the onslaught of natural hazards. About 20 tropical cyclones visit the country every year, active volcanoes erupt within few decades, and earthquakes frequent the country causing damages to structures. Field studies have reported that the casualties and damages due to strong earthquakes have been attributed mainly to collapse of civil engineering structures. Therefore, in order to guarantee the safety of the general public in the event of future earthquakes, it is necessary to study the mechanisms of collapse of these built structures and to provide ways to identify their weak points for the benefit of retrofitting. To address the above issues, a new methodology was developed for the seismic performance assessment of structures. This methodology identifies local failures such as column buckling and connection fracture, which may induce the global system to collapse. In this study, a three-dimensional rigid body-spring method, which can describe the inelastic behavior of a structure and simulate the progressive collapse process, was employed. The sequence of the analysis and results in the form of computer animations offer a real-time assessment of the structural integrity of buildings during earthquakes. Keywords: Collapse, damage, buildings, rigid body-spring method, simulation
SEISMIC HAZARD ASSESSMENT OF SCHOOL BUILDINGS IN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA Tan, K.T.; Razak, H. Abdul
Journal of Applied Geology Vol 2, No 3 (2010)
Publisher : Geological Engineering Department Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (5085.606 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jag.7267

Abstract

Peninsular Malaysia is located on the southern edge of the Eurasian Plate. However, it is close to a seismically active plate boundary, the inter-plate boundary between the Indo-Australian and Eurasian Plates. Occasionally, tremors can be felt throughout the region even when active faults are located several hundred kilometers away. Lessons learnt from past events, active earthquakes located far from the existing building can cause potential damage. Thus, fragility curves become an essential tool to estimate probability of building damage caused by seismic ground motions. In this study, the response of low-rise and mid-rise RC school buildings located in various soil conditions within Peninsular Malaysia under earthquake excitation was investigated by performing dynamic response spectrum analysis. These buildings were analysed using DIANA 9.3 structural analysis program and subjected to a range of low to high seismic ground motions to determine the performance damage state of each type of building. All structural elements were modeled using solid brick finite-element. Correspondingly, the fragility curves were developed using the log-normal distribution for structural response. The effects of various soil conditions on the response of the buildings were also investigated. The results indicated that the effect of soil parameters had a significant effect on the outcome of the fragility curves. However, the risk of these existing school buildings at a location in the northern part of Peninsular Malaysia showed the highest probability of exceeding each damage state. On the contrary, the risk of the existing school buildings at a location in the central part of Peninsular Malaysia was the lowest. Keywords: Interaction, fragility curves, soil-structure
INFLUENCE OF GEOLOGICAL CONDITION TOWARDS SLOPE STABILITY ON LANDSLIDE: CASE STUDY IN TENGKLIK VILLAGE, TAWANGMANGU DISTRICT, KARANGANYAR REGENCY, CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA Najib, Najib; Karnawati, Dwikorita; Sudarno, Ignatius
Journal of Applied Geology Vol 2, No 3 (2010)
Publisher : Geological Engineering Department Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3325.617 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jag.7265

Abstract

A rain-induced landslide has occured in Guyon Village, Tengklik Tawangmangu District Karanganyar Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia on February 2009. The movement was initiated by crack occurrence, 30 cm in depth and 2 meter in length. Such crack continuously developed in depth, extention and numbers, until then it resulted in land subsidence up to 260 cm in depth. Accordingly, ten houses were damaged and ten of families must be evacuated. This subsidence is very potential to further grow and create more consequences for human life and houses / land damage. Therefore, this research is carried out to understand the influence of geological factors and rainfall to the landslide phenomena. This research conducted engineering geology investigation such as mapping, drilling, insitu test, XRD test, soil mechanic test and slope stability analysis by limit equilibrium method i.e. Seep/W and Slope/W. By those research activities, the cause and mechanism of landslide can be understood. Rainfall characteristics which triggered such landslide can also be identified. Based on those investigations, it is found that the landslide occurred in slow rate sliding (creep) due to the control of slope stratigraphy conditions and gentle slope inclination, which is induced by rainfall. Stratigraphy condition that plays important role in landslide mechanism are the permeable layers consisted of sandy silt (shear strength 12 kPa) and silty sandstone (shear strength 18 kPa) overlaid above impermeable andesite breccia (shear strength 104 kPa). Undulating slope may induce landslide in creep rotational type. Based on slope stability simulation, it is known that rainfall triggered landslide is rainfall 20 mm/ day average precipitation in 55 days and rainfall 20 mm/ day average precipitation in 49 days followed by one day with 178 mm/ day average precipitation. Keywords: Landslides, slope stability
THE MECHANISM OF INITIATION AND MOTION OF THE RAPID AND LONG RUNOUT LANDSLIDES TRIGGERED BY THE 2008 WENCHUAN EARTHQUAKE F.W, Wang; P., Sun; Q.G., Cheng; H., Fukuoka
Journal of Applied Geology Vol 2, No 3 (2010)
Publisher : Geological Engineering Department Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3759.823 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jag.7264

Abstract

The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake triggered many rapid and long runout landslides, which made great loss of property and human lives directly. It is very important to understand the mechanism of initiation and motion of the rapid and long runout landslides. In this paper, field investigations on some typical landslides are introduced at first, and then the ring shear tests for simulating the initiation and motion of the Donghekou landslide are presented in details. The real seismic wave monitored in Shifang station was applied in the simulation test for the landslide initiation, while three different conditions of water content (dry, partially saturated, and fully saturated) were applied for the samples in the simulation tests to simulate landslide motion. It was found that the valley water and groundwater played a key role in the long runout and rapid landslide motion process during the great earthquake. This makes the difference for where landslide occurred but stopped soon and where landslides moved for long distance with high speed and killed many people. For the purpose of disaster mitigation, we strongly suggest that:(a) Avoid locating village in the landslide motion path, because the same event will occur in the future; (b) Avoid locating village and people on the landslide, because the landslide will deform easily with the seismic activity; (c) The attention should also be paid for landslide and debris flow during the reconstruction process for disaster mitigation in long period. Keywords: Wenchuan Earthquake, rapid and long runout landslides, ring shear tests, initiation, motion

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