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beta (Biosistem dan Teknik Pertanian)
Published by Universitas Udayana
ISSN : 25023012     EISSN : 25023012     DOI : -
Jurnal BETA (Biosistem dan Teknik Pertanian) memuat hasil penelitian di bidang teknik biosistem (biosystem engineering). Cakupan dari jurnal ini merentang dari aplikasi ilmu keteknikan untuk pertanian. Diantara bidang ilmu tersebut, yang menjadi fokus adalah Bidang Manajemen Keteknikan Pertanian, Teknologi Pascapanen khususnya produk Hortikultura, Rekayasa dan Ergonomika, Konservasi Sumber Daya Alam, serta khusus tentang aplikasi Instrumentasi dan Sistem kontrol dalam bidang pertanian.
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Pengaruh Suhu dan Lama Penyangraian terhadap Karakteristik Fisik dan Mutu Sensori Kopi Arabika (Coffea Arabica L) Purnamayanti, Putu Ayu; Gunadnya, I. B. Putu; Arda, Gede
Jurnal BETA (Biosistem dan Teknik Pertanian) Vol 5 No 2 (2017): September
Publisher : Program Studi Teknik Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Udayana, Badung, Bali, Indonesia

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Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk 1) mengetahui pengaruh suhu dan lama penyangraian terhadap karakteristik fisik dan mutu sensori kopi arabika, 2) mengetahui derajat suhu dan lama penyangraian yang terbaik terhadap karakteristik fisik dan mutu sensori kopi arabika. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap faktorial dengan dua faktor. Faktor pertama adalah suhu yang terdiri dari tiga taraf yaitu 220°C, 235°C dan 250°C. Faktor kedua adalah lama penyangraian, yang terdiri dari tiga taraf yaitu 14 menit, 17 menit dan 20 menit. Variabel yang diamati dalam penelitian ini meliputi rendemen, kadar air, nilai warna, kadar keasaman dan uji sensori kopi arabika. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perlakuan suhu dan lama penyangraian berpengaruh terhadap rendemen, kadar air, nilai warna, kadar keasaman, aroma, rasa dan warna kopi arabika. Suhu penyangraian 235°C dengan lama penyangraian 14 menit merupakan perlakuan terbaik untuk menghasilkan karakteristik fisik dan mutu sensori kopi arabika yang terbaik, yaitu dengan rendemen 82,5%, kadar air 1,08% (bb), beda warna L (Lightness) 6,51, keasaman 5,84, skoring aroma 3,6 (antara biasa dan suka), skoring rasa 3,2 (antara biasa dan suka), skoring warna 3,6 (antara biasa dan suka). This research was aimed to 1) determine the effects of temperature and duration of roasting coffee bean on physical characteristics and sensory quality of arabica coffee; 2) determine the temperature and roasting time which result the best of the physicals characteristics and sensory quality of arabica coffee. The experiments were carried out by using a factorial completely randomized design with two factors. The first factor was roasting temperature which consisted of three levels of 220, 235 and 250°C. The second factor was roasting duration, that consisted of three levels that was 14, 17 and 20 minutes. The variables observed in this study were yield, water content, color by CIELAB, acidity and organoleptic test. The results showed that the roasting temperature treatment and the duration of roasting affected the yield, water content, value of color, acidity levels, aroma, taste and color of arabica roasted coffee. The roasting temperature of 235°C with the duration of 14 minutes was the best treatment which produced the best roasted coffee in physical characteristics sensory quality of arabica coffee, namely 82.5% yield, 1.08% (w/w) moisture content, 6,51 color value (Lightness), 5,84 acidity, aroma 3,6 (between moderate and likes), taste score 3,2 (between moderate and likes), color scoring 3.6 (between moderate and likes).
Pengaruh Pemberian Uap Etanol dan Emulsi Lilin Lebah Terhadap Mutu dan Masa Simpan Buah Salak Gulapasir Juliani, Ni Kadek; Utama, I Made Supartha Supartha; Aviantara, I.G.N. Apriadi
Jurnal BETA (Biosistem dan Teknik Pertanian) Vol 5 No 2 (2017): September
Publisher : Program Studi Teknik Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Udayana, Badung, Bali, Indonesia

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Abstract

Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian uap etanol dengan konsentrasi larutan yang berbeda dan konsentrasi emulsi lilin lebah yang berbeda, sebagai bahan pelapis terhadap mutu serta masa simpan salak Gulapasir dan menentukan ragam konsentrasi yang tepat untuk mempertahankan mutu buah salak Gulapasir. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok faktorial dengan dua faktor yaitu perlakuan etanol dengan 3 tingkat konsentrasi (0%, 10% dan 20%) dan konsentrasi emulsi lilin lebah (0%, 1%, 2%, dan 3%). Salak Gulapasir sebagai kontrol disiapkan tanpa perlakuan etanol dan pelapisan lilin lebah. Percobaan dikelompokkan menjadi tiga kelompok. Pengamatan dilakukan setiap lima hari sampai hari ke 15. Parameter yang diamati meliputi susut bobot, kekerasan, total padatan terlarut, total asam titrasi, intensitas kerusakan, color difference dan uji organoleptik. Hasil sidik ragam menunjukan bahwa interaksi perlakuan uap etanol dan pelapisan lilin lebah berpengaruh nyata terhadap susut bobot, kekerasan, intensitas kerusakan, color difference, dan uji organoleptik rasa, aroma warna sedangkan tidak berpengaruh nyata terhadap total padatan terlarut dan total asam. Kombinasi perlakuan etanol dengan konsentrasi 20% (E20) dengan pelapisan 1% (K1) dengan karakteristik yang dihasilkan nilai rata-rata susut bobot 21,04%, kekerasan 37,34 N, intensitas kerusakan 6,79%, total padatan terlarut 21,04 0Brix, total asam 0.59%, color difference 26,14. Demikian pula uji organo memiliki nilai rata-rata dari panelis untu rasa 3,57, aroma 3,27, dan warna 3.51. The aim of this study is to know the effect of ethanol vapor with different consentration and different concentration of beeswax emulsion, as a coating material that can preserve the quality and shelf life of salak Gulapasir. This research used a factorial randomized block design with two factors which are ethanol vapor treatment with 3 levels of concentrations (0%, 10% and 20%) and variety concentration of beeswax emulsion (0%, 1%, 2%, and 3%). Salak Gulapasir as control were prepared without treatment of ethanol vapor and beeswax emulsion, as a coating material. The experiment were devided into three groups. The observation is perfomed every five days until fifteenth day. The observed parameter of this research were weight loss, hardness, intensity of damage, total dissolved solids, total titrated acids, color difference and organoleptic test. The result of variance analysis showed that the interaction between ethanol vapor and beewax coating significantly affect the weight loss, hardness, intensity of damage, color difference, and organoleptic test. Whereas no significantly affect on total dissolved solids and total titrated acids. The combination of ethanol vapor of 20% (diluted in the water) and 1% concentration of beeswax emulsion as a coating material with the resulting characteristic weighted mean value of 21.04%, hardness 37.34 N, intensity of damage 6.79%, total dissolved solids 21, 04 0Brix, total acid 0.59%, color difference 26.14. Similarly, the organoleptic test has an average value of panelist for taste of 3.57, aroma 3.27, and color 3.51.
Pengaruh Lama Waktu Cekaman Anaerobik Dan Konsentrasi Emulsi Lilin Lebah Sebagai Bahan Pelapis Terhadap Mutu Dan Masa Simpan Buah Tomat Lospiani, Ni Putu Nita; Utama, Made Supartha; Pratiwi Pudja, Ida Ayu Rina
Jurnal BETA (Biosistem dan Teknik Pertanian) Vol 5 No 2 (2017): September
Publisher : Program Studi Teknik Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Udayana, Badung, Bali, Indonesia

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Abstract

Tomat (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) termasuk golongan tanaman sayur yang dapat tumbuh di daerah subtropis dan daerah tropis. Buah tomat sangat ringkih mengalami kerusakan selama periode pascapanen. Untuk memperpanjang masa simpan buah tomat dapat dilakukan dengan pelapisan menggunakan bahan edible. Lilih lebah adalah salah satu bahan yang aman dikonsumsi dan dapat digunakan sebagai bahan pelapis pada buah. Cekaman anaerobik yang diberikan pada buah tomat bertujuan untuk mengreasi senyawa volatile anaerobik untuk memperlambat laju kemunduran buah selama periode pascapanen dengan demikian, memperpanjang masa simpan. Pada kondisi anaerobik, ethanol dan acetaldehyde adalah senyawa volatile yang secara alami diproduksi dari buah dan sayuran. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dua faktor perlakuan, yaitu lama cekaman anaerobik dan konsentrasi emulsi lilin lebah (o/w), sebagai bahan pelapis, terhadap mutu dan masa simpan buah tomat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan, pengaruh dua faktor perlakuan tersebut secara nyata berinteraksi terhadap mutu dan masa simpan. Cekaman anerobik selama 36 jam dikombinasikan dengan konsesntrasi emulsi lilin lebah berbeda (1.5 dan 3.0%) sebagai bahan pelapis, memperlambat kemunduran mutu dan memperpanjang masa simpan buah tomat. Akan tetapi, bila lama cekaman 72 jam yang dikombinasikan dengan perlakuan pelapisan emulsi lilin lebah 3%, intensitas kerusakan buah meningkat. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) is classified as one of fruity vegetables which could grow both sub-tropical region and tropical region. Tomato fruits are naturally prone to damage during the postharvest period. Extending the shelf-life of the fruits could be done by using edible natural coating. Beeswax is one of the natural edible materials that could be applied for fruit coating which is safe to be consumed. Anaerobic stress given to the fruits aimed to create suitable anaerobic volatiles to reduce the deterioration rate during the postharvest period; therefore, prolong the shelf-life. In anaerobic condition, ethanol (ethyl alcohol) and acetaldehyde are volatile compounds which are naturally produced from fruits and vegetables. This research was aim to investigate the effect of two different factors of treatments, namely the length of time of anaerobic stresses and different concentration of beeswax emulsion (o/w), as a coating material, on the quality and storage life of tomato fruits.The result showed that the effect of the both factors of treatments were significantly interacted on the deterioration of quality and storage life of tomato fruits. The length of anaerobic stress of 36 hrs combining with different concentration (1.5 and 3.0%) of beeswax emulsion as a coating material slowed the deterioration of quality and increased the storage life of tomato fruits. However, if the length of stress of 72 hrs combined with concentration of beeswax emulsion of 3%, the intensity of fruit damage increased.
Kajian Proses Pengomposan Berbahan Baku Limbah Kotoran Sapi dan Kotoran Ayam Dewi, Putu Citra; Setiyo, Yohanes; Aviantara, I.G.N. Apriadi
Jurnal BETA (Biosistem dan Teknik Pertanian) Vol 5 No 2 (2017): September
Publisher : Program Studi Teknik Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Udayana, Badung, Bali, Indonesia

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Abstract

Penggunaan kompos sebagai pupuk organik merupakan upaya implementasi sistem low external input on sustainable agriculture (LEISA), penerapan sistem ini dapat (1) meningkatkan proses perbaikan kesehatan lahan, (2) peningkatan kesuburan lahan, dan (3) perbaikan sifat fisik tanah. Permasalahan utama di beberapa SIMANTRI proses pembuatan kompos belum menghasilkan kompos yang memenuhi standar SNI, terutama karena penggunaan bahan baku yang belum memenuhi standar. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbandingan komposisi bahan yang terbaik antar kotoran sapi dan kotoran ayam untuk membuat kompos sesuai dengan standar kualitas kompos. Percobaan dengan 5 pelakuan yaitu KS= kotoran sapi, KA= kotoran ayam, KSKA 2:1= kotoran sapi: kotoran ayam 2:1, KSKA 3:1 = kotoran sapi : kotoran ayam 3:1, KSKA 4:1 = kotoran sapi : kotoran ayam 4:1. Analisa dilakukan di laboratorium Ilmu Tanah Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Udayana. Proses pengomposan berlangsung selama 2 bulan dengan suhu pengomposan mulai dari 22 0C sampai 53 0C dan pengomposan pada pH mulai dari 4 sampai 7. Bentuk fisik kompos sudah menyerupai tanah yang berwarna hitam kecoklatan. Secara umum, kualitas kompos yang dihasilkan dari lima diperlakukan sesuai dengan SNI 19-7030-2004 dengan hasil akhir kotoran sapi berbanding kotoran ayam 2:1. Suhu 25.71; pH 6.91; karbon 11.14 % ; nitrogen 0.66 % and C / N ratio 15.82 %. The use of compost as organic fertilizer is an effort to implement low external input on sustainable agriculture (LEISA) system, the application of this system can (1) improve the process of land health improvement, (2) increase of soil fertility, and (3) improvement of soil physical properties. The main problem in some SIMANTRI is the process of composting did not produce a good quality compost that meets SNI ( Indonesian National Standard), mainly due to the use of raw materials that have not met the standard. This study aimsed to determine the best composition between cow manure and chicken manure to make compost in accordance with compost quality standards. Experiments trough 5 treatments were KS = cow manure, KA = chicken manure, KSKA 2: 1 = cow manure: chicken manure 2: 1, KSKA 3: 1 = cow manure: chicken manure 3: 1, KSKA 4: 1 = cow manure : chicken manure 4 : 1. The compost analysis compost was conducted in the Soil Science Laboratory of Faculty of Agriculture Udayana University. The composting process has done for 2 months with composting temperatures rangied from 22 0C to 53 0C and composting at pH rangied from 4 to 7. Physical form of compost already resembles a brownish-black soil. Generally, the quality of the compost produced has fullfiled with SNI 19-7030-2004 with the final result of cow dung versus 2: 1 chicken feces. Temperature 27.04 0C, pH 6.85, Carbon 11.14%, Nitrogen 0.64% and C/N ratio of 15.82%.
Evaluasi Sistem Operasional dan Pemeliharaan Jaringan Irigasi pada Sistem Subak di Kawasan Warisan Budaya Dunia Catur Angga Batukau Suartiani, Ni Made Ayu Adi; ., Sumiyati; Tika, I Wayan
Jurnal BETA (Biosistem dan Teknik Pertanian) Vol 5 No 2 (2017): September
Publisher : Program Studi Teknik Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Udayana, Badung, Bali, Indonesia

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Abstract

Subak merupakan suatu lembaga irigasi tradisional di Bali yang salah satu fungsinya adalah mengelola air irigasi. Kegiatan operasional dan pemeliharaan jaringan irigasi merupakan suatu kegiatan pemantauan dan perbersihan jaringan irigasi di tingkat subak. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kegiatan operasional dan pemeliharaan (O&P) jaringan irigasi pada tiga lokasi subak di Kawasan Warisan Budaya Dunia Catur Angga Batukau. Metode dalam penelitian ini adalah metode survei dan pengamatan secara langsung. Data yang sudah terkumpul diberi bobot nilai, dan dianalisis. Subak dinilai menggunakan tiga kriteria yaitu Baik = 3, Sedang = 2, dan Kurang = 1. Hasil analisis menggunakan pendekatan logika fuzzy diperoleh kinerja jaringan irigasi pada Subak Jatiluwih adalah 2.49 (sedang), Subak Tengkudak adalah 2.42 (sedang) dan Subak Rejasa adalah 2.50 (sedang). Dari tiga lokasi subak yang diteliti, hasilnya dapat dinyatakan bahwa subak di Kawasan Catur Angga Batukau dalam kondisi sedang, sehingga perlu peningkatan pemeliharaan pada jaringan irigasi. Subak is a traditional irrigation organization in Bali, one of which functions to manage irrigation water coming from a water source. The purpose of this research is to know the physical performance of irrigation network and operational system and maintenance (O & P) of irrigation network on three subak sites located in Catur Angga Batukau which one of World Cultural Heritage. The method in this research were survey and observation, method directly on physical aspect of irrigation network. The collected data will be assessed by the expert, and analyzed. Subak was assessed using 3 criteria one Good = 3, Medium = 2, and Less = 1. System analysis was done by fuzzy logic approach. Based on the results of analysis using fuzzy logic approach on three sites, obtained an average value of 2.50 with the criteria between medium well. Was obtained combination of physical aspects and aspects of irrigation network O & P effect in the performance of irrigation networks. Therefore, the performance of irrigation network at Subak Jatiluwih was 2.17 (medium), Subak Tengkudak was 2.21 (medium) and Subak Rejasa was 2.18 (medium). From three subak sites, the result was subak in medium condition need improvement in irrigation network in each subak. Infrastructure facilities in subak need to be considered by pekaseh. Each subak member participate in maintaining the infrastructure facilities distribution of irrigation water.
Pengaruh Perlakuan Uap Etanol Terhadap Mutu dan Masa Simpan Bunga Kol (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) Pada Suhu Ruang Martini, Ni Ketut Sari; Utama, I Made Supartha; Pratiwi Pudja, Ida Ayu Rina
Jurnal BETA (Biosistem dan Teknik Pertanian) Vol 5 No 2 (2017): September
Publisher : Program Studi Teknik Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Udayana, Badung, Bali, Indonesia

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Abstract

Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mempelajari pengaruh perlakuan uap etanol terhadap mutu dan masa simpan bunga kol pada suhu ruang. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL) dengan 5 taraf perlakuan konsentrasi etanol (0%, 5%, 10% 15% dan 20%) dan tiga ulangan. Bunga kol sebagai kontrol dipersiapkan tanpa perlakuan dan ditempatkan pada suhu ruang (27±1?) Parameter mutu yang diamati dalam penelitian ini meliputi laju respirasi, susut bobot, warna, kadar vitamin c, total padatan terlarut, uji organoleptik meliputi warna, aroma, dan kesegaran serta intensitas kerusakan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan etanol 10% merupakan perlakuan terbaik dalam menekan laju respirasi, susut bobot, mempertahankan warna, menekan penurunan kadar vitamin c, mendapat skor tertinggi dalam uji organoleptik meliputi warna, aroma dan kesegaran serta menekan intensitas kerusakan pada bunga kol. The purpose of this research were to determine the effect of ethanol vapor also find the best combination treatment that can prevent quality and shelf life of cauliflowers. The research used completely randomized design (CRD) with 5 levels of ethanol consentrations; 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. The floret of cauliflowers as controls were prepared without treatment of ethanol vapor and placed at room temperature. The measured parameters were: respiration rate, weight loss, color, vitamin c, total dissolved solids, organoleptic test (includes color, smell, freshness), and intensity of damage. The results showed concentration of 10% etanol treatment was the best combination to reduce respiration rate, weight loss, maintain color, suppress the decrease in vitamin c content, got best scores in organoleptict test of color, smell and freshness and also supress the intensity of damage in cauliflowers.
Penentuan Nilai Kontrak Asuransi Usaha Tani Tanaman Kopi Arabika Berbasis Indeks Harga Internasional Suarjana, I Wayan; Widia, I Wayan; Darmawan, Komang
Jurnal BETA (Biosistem dan Teknik Pertanian) Vol 5 No 2 (2017): September
Publisher : Program Studi Teknik Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Udayana, Badung, Bali, Indonesia

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Abstract

Kopi merupakan salah satu komoditas unggulan ekspor Indonesia. Usaha tani tanaman kopi arabika di Kecamatan Kintamani memiliki risiko kerugian yang tinggi. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu mengetahui keterkaitan harga internasional kopi arabika dengan harga kopi arabika di tingkat produsen (petani) dan menentukan besaran premi serta nilai pertanggungan. Data yang dipergunakan yaitu harga internasional kopi arabika, harga kopi arabika tingkat produsen (petani), kurs mata uang IDR-US$, suku bunga Bank Indonesia, inflasi tahunan, dan data biaya produksi (input) usaha tani kopi arabika per tahun/Ha. Hasil analisis data menunjukkan bahwa harga internasional kopi arabika berkorelasi sangat kuat terhadap harga kopi arabika di tingkat produsen (r=0,87) pada bulan Nopember. Perubahan harga internasional kopi arabika (x) berpengaruh positif terhadap perubahan harga kopi arabika di tingkat produsen (y) yang dinyatakan dengan persamaan regresi linier sederhana 1,031x – 2282,150 (R2 = 0,7503). Hasil uji normalitas menggunakan metode Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) menunjukkan log data harga internasional kopi arabika yang dijadikan basis indeks harga internasional berdistribusi normal (K-S=0,864), kemudian dilanjutkan dengan penentuan besaran premi dan besaran pertanggungan asuransi. Berdasarkan metode Black-Scholes terdapat enam pilihan nilai premi yang ditawarkan mulai dari persentil ke 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 yaitu Rp. 226.781, Rp. 263.034, Rp. 293.666, Rp. 321.458, Rp. 347.470, Rp. 372.238 untuk nilai pertanggungan sebesar Rp. 19.539.567 tiap satu masa kontrak. Coffee is one of Indonesia's main export commodities. Arabica coffee farm business has a high risk of loss and the government is obliged to give protection to farmers in the form of subsidy of premium. The purpose of this research to know the procedure of pricing the value of the contract of arabica coffee farm business insurance based on international price index and the amount of premium and the sum of coverage. The data used are the international price of arabica coffee, the price of arabica coffee at the producer level (farmer), the exchange rate of US$ -IDR, the Bank Indonesia rate, the annual inflation, and the production cost of arabica coffee per year. The result of data analysis showed that the international price of arabica coffee is highly correlated to arabica coffee price at the producer level (r = 0,87). The international price change of arabica coffee (y) has a positive effect on the change of arabica coffee price at producer level (x) which is expressed by simple linear regression equation y = 1,031x - 2282,150 (R2 = 0,7503). The result of normality test using Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) method, shows that arabica coffee price data which is used as the base of international price index are normal distributed (K-S = 0,997), therefore Black-Scholes method can be used to pricing premium and insurance coverage. Based on the Black-Scholes method there are six choices of premium value offered for the sum insured of Rp. 19.539.567 per one contract period.

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