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INDONESIA
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES
Published by Universitas Udayana
ISSN : 20854773     EISSN : 23022906     DOI : -
Core Subject : Health,
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science (IJBS), Print-ISSN 2085-4773; E-ISSN 2302-2906 is an international and peer-reviewed journal published twice per year in print and online by Indonesian of Biomedical Association in collaboration to Postgraduate School of Biomedicine Udayana University, Bali-Indonesia which was founded in 2007. The Journal aims to bridge and integrate the intellectual, methodological, and substantive diversity of biomedical scholarship, and to encourage a vigorous dialogue between biomedical scholars and researches. The Journal welcomes contributions which promote the exchange of ideas and rational discourse between practicing educators and biomedical researchers all over the world.
Arjuna Subject : -
Articles 87 Documents
SEAWEED EXTRACTS IMPROVE LIPID PROFILE OF WISTAR RAT Marhaeni Julyasih, K. Sri; Suata, K.; Wirawan, I.G.P; Mantik Astawa, I. N.
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES Vol. 5, No. 2 Mei 2011
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Abstract

Hypercholesterolemia or hyperlipidemia has been established as an important risk factor of cardiovascular disease. Patients with hypercholesterolemia usually require a prolonged treatment; and the newer and more potent generation of antilipid agents are costly.In Bali there are several types of seaweed that are generally consumed by the local people and known by the local names of Bulung Boni (Caulerpa spp.) and Bulung Sangu (Gracilaria spp.). Preliminary studies on the effect of Bulung Boni and Bulung Sangu extracts appeared to improve lipid profile, but the available data are still very limited both in extent and depth, and further investigations were considered relevant and needed.This experimental study used completely blind randomized design, using a total of 24 Wistar rats divided into six sample groups of equal size, all fed with a diet high in cholesterol content. The six sample groups were respectively designated as negative control group, positive control group, and four treated sample groups, respectively fed orally with a dose of 20 mg and 60 mg extracts of Bulung Boni per 100g of body weight per day, and 20 mg and 60 mg extracts of Bulung Sangu per 100g body weight per day. Each treatment was repeated four times.Our study showed that rats fed with high-cholesterol diet and treated with oral Bulung Boni or Bulung Sangu extract at a dose of 20 mg and 60 mg/100 g bw/ day were associated with statistically significantly increased plasma HDL levels (p < 0.05), and statistically significant decreased plasma LDL and total cholesterol levels (p < 0.05) as compared with those of rats fed with high cholesterol diet without treatment with Bulung Boni or Bulung Sangu extracts.From our data it could be implied that Bulung Boni and Bulung Sangu extracts improve lipid profile in the Wiatar rat by significantly increasing plasma HDL level, and lowering LDL and total cholesterol levels.
THE INCREASED INCIDENCE OF NAUSEA AND VOMITING DUE TO ANXIETY IN PACLITAXEL CARBOPLATIN CHEMOTHERAPY IN A 48 YEARS OLD FEMALE PATIENT WITH CERVICAL CANCER: A CASE REPORT Putra, I. F. W.; Noviyani, R.; Suwiyoga, and, K.
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES Vol 8 No 1 (2014): IJBS Vol8 No1
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Abstract

Nausea and vomiting was the frequently side effects in chemotherapy.Uncontrolled nausea and vomiting can cause weakened body condition, reduced appetite and drinking, dehydration, electrolyte disturbances, reduced nutritional status so the patient refused to undergo further chemotherapy. Anxiety is one of the factors that increase the risk of nausea and vomiting. We reported the case of the woman 48 years old, height 150 cm, weight 51 kg, occupation housewife, diagnosed non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma cervical cancer  stage-IIB and received paclitaxel carboplatin for three cycles of chemotherapy. She experienced anxiety, acute nausea vomiting on the third cycle of chemotherapy and delayed nausea and vomiting of the three cycles of chemotherapy.
REDESIGN OF WORK PLACE AND SYSTEM WITH ERGONOMIC INTERVENTION IMPROVES THE PERFORMANCE OF THE SKT (HAND ROLLED CIGARETTE) ROLLERS AT CIGARETTE INDUSTRY “X” IN KEDIRI EAST JAVA Sajiyo, H; Manuaba, Adnyana; Adiputra, Nyoman; Sutjana, Putu
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES Vol. 3, No. 1 Januari 2009
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Abstract

In this research ergonomic intervention of the 4 main factors influencingperformance was conducted. The four main factors are : (a) intervention of humancovering the change in position of the SKT rollers from the position of facing oneanother into that of facing the same direction, from the hunchbacked sitting positioninto the upright one; (b) intervention of work equipment covering the changes inform, dimension, table and chair size, and layouts of space and work facilities ; (c)intervention of work system covering the changes in work process arrangement, rightand left hand movement, time allocated for active break and in the removal oftobacco which used to be done by the knockers but now is done by the rollers; (d)intervention of work environment, that is, exhaust installation to regulate thecirculation and wind humidity in the SKT rollers? room. Redesign of place and worksystem with ergonomic intervention contribute to : (a) the decrease in work loadfrom medium category into light category; (b) the decrease in work tiredness frombeing very tired category into being not tired; (c) the decrease in musculoskeletalcomplaint from high category (being disturbed) into light category (beingundisturbed); (d) the decrease in medical treatment cost by 56,97%; (e) the increasein work productivity by 41,47%; (f) the increase in the SKT rollers? salaries by15,10%; and (g) the increase in the company?s profit by 12,76%. Generally, redesignof place and work system can increase the performance of the SKT rollers at cigaretteindustry ?X? at Kediri, East Java. Therefore, it has been suggested that the companycontinue to redesign the place and work system with ergonomic intervention in theother units.
MAKROFAG PENGEKSPRESI IL-1? SERTA RESPONS INFLAMASI SISTEMIK PADA FIKSASI INTERNA DINI FRAKTUR FEMUR TERTUTUP LEBIH RENDAH DIBANDINGKAN DENGAN YANG TERTUNDA Astawa, P.; Bakta, M.; K., Budha
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES Vol. 1, No. 3 Desember 2007
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Abstract

Fiksasi interna merupakan salah satu modalitas terapi dalam penangananfraktur. Fiksasi interna dini dan tertunda masih menjadi suatu perdebatan karenaadanya perbedaan komplikasi yang ditimbulkan, terutama yang berhubungandengan respons inflamasi sistemik. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahuiperbedaan makrofag pengekspresi IL-1? (dengan pengecatan imuno histokimia)antara saat tindakan fiksasi interna dini dan tertunda serta untuk mengetahuiperbedaan respons inflamasi sistemik ( IL-6 sebagai marker) pascafiksasi internadini dan tertunda pada fraktur femur tertutup.Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian quasi eksperimental " post test onlycontrol group design". Penelitian ini dilakukan di Bagian Bedah RSUP SanglahDenpasar dengan besar sampel dihitung dengan rumus Pocock. Kemudiandilakukan uji normalitas K-S, t test, t-paired test dan uji korelasi.Dari penelitian ini diperoleh hasil bahwa (1) terdapat perbedaan bermaknaantara makrofag pengekspresi IL-1? pada saat perlakuan (hari I) dan makrofag saatkontrol (hari III-V) (2.37±2.98 % vs 4.99±4.89 %, p<0.05) dan (2) terdapatperbedaan yang bermakna kadar IL-6 serum sesudah fiksasi interna antarakelompok fiksasi interna dini dan tertunda (51,17± 23,19 pg/ml vs 95,39± 80pg/ml, p<0.05).Dari penelitian ini dapat dibuat suatu kesimpulan, yaitu (1) reaksi inflamasisekitar lokasi fraktur lebih rendah pada fiksasi interna dini daripada pada fiksasiinterna tertunda dan (2) kadar IL-6 pasca fiksasi interna dini lebih rendah daripada yang tertunda, dan kadar IL-6 serum sebelum fiksasi interna dapat dipakaisebagai prediktor kadar IL-6 pascafiksasi interna.
ERGONOMIC REDESIGN OF WORKING TOOLS INCREASES PERFORMANCE OF TRADITIONAL COCONUT OIL MAKERS IN THE DISTRICT OF DAWAN, KLUNGKUNG Arimbawa, I Made Gede; Adnyana Manuaba, Ida Bagus; Nala, I Gusti Ngurah; Adiputra, Nyoman
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES Vol. 3, No. 2 Juli 2009
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Abstract

The business of producing coconut oil in the district of Dawan, Klungkung is oneexample of small-scale home industries in the rural area. The level of working productivityof the oil makers can be categorized as relatively low, as viewed from the aspect of thefollowing indicators: (a) level of working burden, (b) musculoskeletal complaints, (c) levelof fatigue or tiredness, and (d) level of productivity. One factor that causes the lowproductivity is the fact that the working tools used in this industry are non-ergonomicallydesigned such as: (1) tool for peeling off the coconut fibers, (2) tool for taking the coconutflesh, (3) tool for grating the coconut flesh, (4) tool for extracting milk from the watermixedgrated coconut, (5) stove for boiling the coconut milk. Based on the above problemsbackground, it is necessary to make more ergonomic new design or redesign of the toolsthat are used by the coconut oil makers in the district of Dawan in order to increase theirworking performance or productivity.This research was carried out using treatment by subject design by comparing beforeand after treatment involving 22 female subjects selected by simple random method fromall female coconut oil makers in the studied area. Before treatment the research subjectswere asked to make coconut oil as usual with their traditional tools. After an interval ofwashing out period was given, the subjects entered the treatment phase in which they wereasked to make coconut oil by using the tools already redesigned ergonomically. The dataobtained from the research were analyzed by t-paired test at a significance level of 5%.Results of the analysis showed as follows: (1) average of working heart rate beforetreatment was 108.49 ± 0.95 pulse /minute and after treatment 91.92 ± 1.91 pulse /minute,indicating a decrease of workload from moderate to mild one (decrease of working heartrate of 16.59 pulse/minute or 14.69%); (2) average of musculoskeletal complaints beforetreatment was 51.73 ± 1.36 and after treatment 36.79 ± 0.83 (a decrease of 14.94 or26.17%); (3) average of fatigue before treatment was 66.75 ± 3.60 and after treatment49.50 ± 3.28 (a decrease of 17.19 or 25.83%); (4) average of working productivity beforeand after treatment was 35.86 ± 1.09 and 48.66 ± 1.10, respectively (an increase of 12.81 or35.71%). Based on evaluation of investment yield, the NVP value in a five-year period Rp.11.503.431,- > 0, PBP 9.22 months > 0, and RoI 32.54 > 13% (rate of interest commonlyapplied in 2008).It is concluded that redesign of working tools to be more ergonomic has proven to beable to increase the working performance of coconut oil makers and hence worth investing.Novelty of this research is in the positive results related to ergonomic redesigning of thetools for making coconut oil in the district of Dawan, Klungkung by approaches to being systemic, holistic, interdisciplinary, participatory, and appropriate technology usage.Further studies on similar related working issue should focus on the aspects of workingenvironment, especially on how to overcome smoke pollutant in the kitchen area, on moreproper work station and working organization or on that related to production quality of thecoconut oil by generating maximally all the potential already in existence among the localtraditional coconut oil makers.
MUTATIONS IN 1700 BP FRAGMENT OF RPOB GENE OF MULTI-DRUG RESISTANT MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS ISOLATE Yowani, Chandra; Sukardika, I K.; Mantik-Astawa, I N.; Junitha, I K.
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES Vol 6 No 2 (2012): Indonesian Journal of Biomedical Sciences
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Abstract

This research aimed to amplify a 1700 bp fragment of rpoB gene of multidrug resistance M. tuberculosis (MDR-TB) isolate and determine types of mutation beyond the core region (hot-spot region). DNA sequencing studies indicate that more than 95% of rifampin-resistant M. tuberculosis strains have mutations within the 81-bp hot-spot region (codons 507 to 533) of the RNA polymerase ?-subunit (rpoB). Since almost 90 % of rifampicin resistant isolate are also resistant to isoniazid, mutation in rpoB gene become important as a surrogate marker for MDR-TB. MDR- TB isolates used for this research, namely isolate 885, was collected by Regional Health Laboratory of Surabaya. PCR was used to amplify the gene, on described steps : a cycle of preheating at 95°C for 15 minutes, amplifying in 45 cycles ( 1 minute at 94°C, 1 minute at 58°C, 1 minute 72°C) and post extension for 5 minutes at 72°C. The mutations were detected by sequencing and alignment using MEGA4. The result of this research showed that there were new mutations downstream of the core region of rpoB. Sequence analysis showed some mutations such as S594A, S626V, T629A. In conclusion, it is reported for the first time, new mutations at downstream region of the core region of rpoB.
THE OBSTACLE IN IMPLEMENTATION OF ERGONOMICS SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM IN ENTERPRISES Sutjana, I Dewa Putu
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES Vol. 2, No. 1 Maret 2008
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Safety and health are the basic rights of the workers and one of the requirement to increased theworker?s productivity. Beside that safety and health constitute requirement for winning freecompetition in the globalization and Asean Free Trade Agreement (AFTA), World TradeOrganization (WTO) and Asia Pacific Economic Community (APEC). So that to followed freetrade competition, safety and health program must be implemented in all working places. Theergonomics, not only increased the healthy and safety of the workers, but also increased theproductivity. If the ergonomics safety and health can be implemented in the enterprises the safetyand health and productivity of the workers will be increased. Although the implementation of theergonomics safety and health principle in the enterprises had been applied and improved thehealthy, safety and productivity of the workers but the implementation in the enterprisesespecially in the small and medium enterprises are still far from expectation. To find out thecauses the observation study had been done during implementation of the ergonomics, safety andhealth program in small and mdium eneterprises in Bali since 1995. There are many obstacleswere found such as: 1) the result of the ergonomics, safety and health implementation still inform of healthy, safety, comfort, efisien and the increases of productivity, but not yet showed inform of money (industrial language); 2) enterprises management took the lower priority to theergonomics, safety and health program in operation of the enterprises; 3) the program of theergonomics safety and health dominan in form of curative action compared with preventive andpromotive; 4) other factors such as less of management and workers knowledge about safety andhealth, limited of capital, less of control and low enforcement of the government. So that theimplementation of the ergonomics safety and health program should be attained the benefit inform of money not only to the workers but also to the enterprises. Control and low enforcementof the governement should be tightening and continued.
HIGH PLASMA TNF-? LEVELS AND MONONUCLEAR CELLS INOS AND TNF-? EXPRESSION AS RISK FACTORS FOR PAINFUL DIABETIC NEUROPATHY Eko Purwata, Thomas; Suastika, Ketut; Raka Sudewi, A. A.; Widjaja, Djoenaidi
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES Vol. 4, No. 2 Juli 2010
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Abstract

Painful Diabetic Neuropathy (PDN) is one of the most common and annoyingcomplications of diabetes mellitus. The pathogenesis of PDN is complex and still unclear.Recently it has become clear that nitric oxide (NO) and proinflammatory cytokines playan important role in the pathogenesis and maintenance of pain in PDN. Based on thisphenomenon, this study was conducted to investigate whether the cytokine tumornecrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and NO, in this case inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase(iNOS), play a role in PDN pathogenesis.The study was carried in two steps. The first step was a cross sectional and thesecond step was a case-control study. The study was performed in 110 type-2 diabeticpatients. The plasma TNF-? levels were determined by ELISA while the expression ofTNF-? and iNOS in mononuclear cells were analyzed immunohistochemically.Of 110 subjects, 59 patients suffered from Painful DN (case) and the remaining51 patients were Painless DN (control). Cross sectionally, plasma TNF-? levels andimmunoreactivity for iNOS and TNF-? were higher in patients with more severe pain inthe Visual Analog Scale (VAS). There were statistically significant differences (p <0.05) between mild and severe pain in regard to TNF-? level (15.24 pg/ml ± 5.42 vs.20.44 pg/ml ± 10.34 ); to iNOS immunoreactivity (9.72 % ± 8.61 vs. 15.6% ± 11.84); andto TNF-? immunoreactivity (13.0 % ± 9. 48 vs. 20.44% ± 11.75).The case control study showed that TNF-? had an odd ratio of 5.053 [CI 95%(2.241-11.392); p < 0.001]. TNF-? immunoreactivity of 4.125 [CI 95% (1.805-9.425); p< 0.001]; and iNOS immunoreactivity of 3.546 [CI 95% (1.613-7.795); p = 0.002]. There were correlations between TNF-? level, TNF-? and iNOS immunoreactivity andVAS with coefficient correlation: 0.330; 0.285 and 0.275 (p < 0.05) respectively.It is concluded that Diabetic Neuropathy patients with high TNF-? levels, iNOSand TNF-? immunoreactivity of mononuclear cells have higher risk for painful DN thanpainless DN. The higher TNF-? level, iNOS and TNF-? immunoreactivity the moresevere was the pain. This supports the hypothesis that TNF-? and iNOS have role inPDN pathogenesis. The results of this research could be applied as a basic for furtherresearch in pursuit of better management of PDN.
OBSTETRIC AND GYNECOLOGIC DEPARTMENTS, FACULTY OF MEDICINE UDAYANA UNIVERSITY, BALI-INDONESIA Mahendra-Dewi, I G. A. S.; Suwiyoga, and I K.
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES Vol 7 No 1 (2013): IJBS Vol.7 No.1 January-June 2013
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The high risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) have already known widely and accepted as a causative agent for cervical cancer. Epidemiologically, predominant high-risk is HPV-16 and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) is the most common histological type. HPV genotype probably correlates to histologic type. This study aims to determine how many fold is the risk of SCC on HPV-16 infection. This is a case control with SCC HPV-16 positive as the cases and SCC HPV-16 negative as the controls. Tissues diagnosed as SCC and non SCC was paraffin-embedded. SPF-10 and specific E7-primer types by LiPA were employed for genotyping of HPV-16. c2 was applied to analyze the correlation. A number of 65 SCC consisted of 33 cases and 32 controls were observed in this study. The risk of SCC on HPV-16 infection was 3.40-fold (95% CI = 1.44-8.03; p = 0.004) compare with HPV-16 negative. Controls in this study consist of 18 (27.69%) of HPV-18, 9 (13.85%) of HPV-52, and 5 (7.69%) of other HPV types. The mean-age of case group and control group infected by HPV were 52.28 ± 12.43 and 47.70 ± 8.02 year, respectively (p = 0.02). HPV-16 infection caused SCC is 3.5 more than other high risk group.
EXERCISE REDUCE OXIDATIVE DAMAGE IN PREGNANCY Wagey, F. W; Pangkahila, A.; Surya, I.G.P; Bagiada, A
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES Vol. 5, No. 2 Mei 2011
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Pregnancy is a vulnerable condition to all kinds of "stress", resulting in changes of physiological and metabolic functions. This research aims to determine effect of exercise during pregnancy in reducing oxidative demage marked by decrease of malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-diguanosine levels. Randomized pre and posttest control group design was employed in this study. A number of 66 pregnant women were recruited in this study and grouped to two groups, i.e 30 of them as control group and the rest as treatment group. Pregnancy exercise was performed to all 36 pregnant women from 20 weeks gestation on treatment group. The exercise was performed in the morning for about 30 minutes, twice a weeks. On the other hand, daily activities was sugested for control group. Student?s t-test was then applied to determine the mean different of treatment and control group with 5 % of significant value. This study reveals that there were significantly higher decrease of (MDA) and 8-OHdG about 0.15 nmol/ml and 0.08 ng/ml, respectively, amongs treatment and control groups (p < 0.05). Clinical outcomes, such as strengten of pelvic muscle and quality of life of treatment group were significantly better compared to control group (p < 0.05). This means that exercise during pregnancy ages of 20 weeks decrease MDA and 8-OHdG levels higher compare to control group without exercise.