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International Journal of Applied Biology
Published by Universitas Hasanuddin
ISSN : 25802410     EISSN : 25802119     DOI : -
International Journal of Applied Biology is an international, peer reviewed journal, publishing high-quality research. International Journal of Applied Biology only publishes manuscripts in English. Please see the journal's Focus & Scope for information about its Scope and peer-review policy. International Journal of Applied Biology is available in print and online version.
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Articles 50 Documents
A REVIEW ON GENE PYRAMIDING OF AGRONOMIC, BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC TRAITS IN RICE VARIETY DEVELOPMENT Akos, Ibrahim Silas; Yusop, Mohd Rafii; Ismail, Mohd Razi; Ramlee, Shairul Izan; Shamsudin, Norazyah Abd Aziz; Ramli, Asfaliza Binti; Haliru, Bello Sani; Ismai'la, Muhammad; Chukwu, Samuel Chibuike
International Journal of Applied Biology Vol 3, No 2 (2019): International Journal of Applied Biology
Publisher : Hasanuddin University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20956/ijab.v3i2.7818

Abstract

Rice Oryza sativa L is a staple food crop, and its seeds are the most important component part of the agronomic trait of the cereal crop, rich in nutrient and of economic value to human and even livestock. But, it is often threatened by various abiotic and biotic conditions that reduce the yield, because of high incidences of infectious disease agents and non-pathogenic conditions respectively. Pyramiding of the requisite resistance and tolerance genes into single elite high yielding variety of rice, confers wider spectrum of stress management, resulting to development of single multiline variety of rice. Marker-assisted selection utilizes DNA marker-linked primers for blast resistant gene (RM8225;Piz, RM6836;Piz, Pi2,Pi9), bacteria leaf blight (RM224; Xa-4, RM122;xa-5, RG136; xa-13, RM21;Xa-21) and drought tolerance (RM236;qDTY2.2, RM520;qDTY3.1, RM511;qDTY12.1) in pedigree, backcross and recurrent selection breeding methods. The objectives are to create awareness on the environmental safety of host-resistance, significance of single multiline resistance variety, effect of the interaction of stress conditions and associated simple sequence repeat (SSR) linked markers.
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF MAIZE IN JUMLA DISTRICT OF NEPAL: FROM YIELDING PERSPECTIVE Shrestha, Jiban
International Journal of Applied Biology Vol 3, No 2 (2019): International Journal of Applied Biology
Publisher : Hasanuddin University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20956/ijab.v3i2.8060

Abstract

The performance evaluation of maize genotypes  at a specific growing region is a key to crop improvement. The objectives of this study were to evaluate grain yield of maize genotypes at Bijayanagar (Mahatgaun VDC) and Tallo Lorpa (Dillichaur VDC), Jumla District of Nepal during spring seasons of 2012 and 2013. The maize genotypes were significant (P< 0.05) for grain yield, days to tasseling and silking and  disease scoring where as anthesis-silking interval, plant height and ear height were non significant. The pooled analysis of the results showed that the highest grain yield was produced by Ganesh-1 (4830 kg/ha) followed by KKT-POP (4408 kg/ha), KKT-14 (3952 kg/ha) and MGU-08 (3913 kg/ha, respectively. From this study, Ganesh-1, KKT-POP, KKT-14 and MGU-08 could be preferable choice for cultivation in Jumla district of Nepal.
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF LENTIL AND CHICKPEA GENOTYPES IN DOTI DISTRICT OF NEPAL Prasai, Hari Kumar
International Journal of Applied Biology Vol 3, No 2 (2019): International Journal of Applied Biology
Publisher : Hasanuddin University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20956/ijab.v3i2.8113

Abstract

Lentil and chickpea are important winter legumes of Nepal. The experiments were carried out to evaluate the agronomic performance of lentil and chickpea genotypes at research field of Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS), Bhagetada, Doti, Nepal during winter seasons of 2012 and 2013. The 16 lentil genotypes were evaluated in both years whereas 20 and 14 genotypes of chickpea were evaluated in 2012 and 2013 respectively. The genotypes were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that both lentil and chickpea genotypes indicated differences for their morphological traits namely plant height, flowering, maturity, pods/plant and grain yield. The combined analysis of trials over years showed that lentil genotype namely Black Masuro produced the highest grain yield (790 kg/ha) followed by LG 12 (746 kg/ha) and ILL 3111 (747 kg/ha), respectively. Similarly, chickpea genotypes namely ICCX 840508-31 produced the highest grain yield (953 kg/ha) followed by ICCX 840508-40 (911 kg/ha) and BG 372 (850 kg/ha), respectively. It is suggested that the superior genotypes derived from these experiments could be further evaluated in farmers? fields  before making recommendation for general cultivation
BIOMASS AND CARBON UPTAKE OF MANGROVE FORESTS POHORUA VILLAGE, MUNA REGENCY iksan, muhamad
International Journal of Applied Biology Vol 3, No 2 (2019): International Journal of Applied Biology
Publisher : Hasanuddin University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20956/ijab.v3i2.8448

Abstract

Environmental conditions caused by air pollution are so large that it impacts on changes in the ecosystem that affects all aspects of human life. Climate change is caused by increasing greenhouse gases in the earth's atmosphere because the Earth's atmosphere receives more carbon than it releases. This study aims to determine the potential of biomass and carbon uptake in mangrove stems in Pohorua village, Muna Regency. The research is quantitative descriptive, sampling using the Point Center Quarted Method (PCQM) technique measured around the height of the chest height mangrove tree (DBH). Data analysis was performed using an allometric equation in which each mangrove plant has a specific gravity. Carbon uptake found in mangroves stored in the roots, stems and leaves of mangrove plants, the results of the study showed that mangroves can absorb carbon quickly.
GENETIC INHERITANCE OF MULTIPLE TRAITS OF BLAST, BACTERIA LEAF BLIGHT RESISTANT AND DROUGHT TOLERANT RICE LINES Yusop, Mohd Rafii
International Journal of Applied Biology Vol 3, No 2 (2019): International Journal of Applied Biology
Publisher : Hasanuddin University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20956/ijab.v3i2.7760

Abstract

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a cereal and staple food crop of over half of the world?s population. Blast, bacteria leaf blight and drought stresses affect yield of rice drastically ranging from 1-100% loss depending on the severity of disease and water deficit condition. Resistance and tolerance high yielding varieties of blast (Putra1) and drought (MR219 IR99784-156-137-1-3) respectively and also IRBB60 (bacteria leaf blight) were used. The research considered the genetic inheritance of the new improved lines and their interactions. Pedigree breeding method was used to develop two single, double and three-way (and reciprocal) crosses through marker-assisted selection. Southern blot analysis was used to determine success of introgression of resistance/tolerance genes/QTLs and selection, also validated by phenotyped results. Agro-morphological and yield parameters of the various populations were analysed. The results indicated levels of significant differences amongst and between treatments for non-drought stress (NS) and reproductive drought stress (RS) and their interactions. There were significant variation among parents and improved lines on some traits in NS treatment, but RS significantly affected parameters of DF, FFG, YM and most especially the susceptible parent, while the improved lines were tolerant.  Significant interactions was recorded (P?0.05) between treatment and variety (Trt*Var.) on PL, T, FFG and GLW. Cluster analysis and PCA of relationship among the 9 traits in the two treatments revealed that each of single, double and three-way (and reciprocal) crosses had good lines either under NS and RS. 
STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF SUGAR AND LIME JUICE PROPORTION ON THE QUALITY OF STARF RUIT SORBET Seftiono, Hermawan; Panjaitan, Gracecilia Yohanna; Sumiasih, Inanpi Hidayati
International Journal of Applied Biology Vol 4, No 1 (2020): International Journal of Applied Biology
Publisher : Hasanuddin University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20956/ijab.v4i1.9181

Abstract

Star fruit is a non-seasonal fruit that can be harvested three to four times a year. One possible way to process a star fruit is to make it into sorbet. Additional ingredients such as sugar and lime juice will help improve the quality of star fruit sorbet. The purpose of this study was to acquire the best formulation of honey star fruit sorbet by adding sugar and lime juice and to find out the effect of different concentration of sugar and lime juice on the level of predilection, physical traits, level of vitamin C, and antioxidants activity. This study consisted of two phases; the production of lime essence in phase one and the making of star fruit sorbet in phase two as the main study. The result of best formulations selected based on organoleptic test of panellists? level of predilection were formulation of 150 g sugar + 30 g lime, 90 g sugar + 60 g lime, and 120 g sugar + 60 g lime. Analysis of variance results indicated different formulation of star fruit sorbet had significant effect (P<0.05) on colour, flavour, aroma, and overall but showed no difference on the texture of star fruit sorbet. Overall, the best formulation was 150 g sugar + 30 g lime juice with overrun score of 23.52%, pH 4.20, sugar content of 26.85 oBrix, melting time of 43.16 minutes, vitamin C content of 0.968 mg, and antioxidant activity of 320.86 ppm.Keyword: antioxidant activity; hedonic test; organoleptic test.
Biofiltration Efficiency of Algae Spirogyra hyalina to Reduce Salinity of Sea Water Putra, Ayub Wirabuana
International Journal of Applied Biology Vol 1, No 1 (2017): International Journal of Applied Biology
Publisher : Hasanuddin University

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Abstract

Algae Spyrogyra hyalina is one species of fresh water algae that is very easy to find in Indonesia. This species of algae known to have a lot of potential, which until now unknown. One potential that tried to explore in this research is the ability of these algae for decreasing the level of salt water salinity into fresh water. This research is an experiment with a completely randomized design (CRD), three treatments and three replications. Testing is done by performing algae arbsorbtion using three forms (powder, granule, and paper) with different biomass (1 g, 2 g, and 4gr). Preparations then coupled into a transparent pipe. The results showed the real effect of the decreased levels of salinity brine through the circuit. Filter with the powder forms with 4gr biomass has the highest salinity level reduction of 15%o,  then the dosage form of granules with biomass 4gr with decreased 5.23%o and the third dosage form of paper with 1 gram of biomass with a decrease of 4.23%o.Forms with other biomass have a decrease in the salinity level of not more than 4%o. Preparations with powder form and 4gr biomass can be used to reduce the salinity level in the salt water.
Diversity of Invertebrate Epifaunas Associating with Mangrove In Balangdatu Village Tanakeke Islands of South Sulawesi Crisnawati, Crisnawati; Litaay, Magdalena; Prisambodo, Dody; Santoso, Slamet
International Journal of Applied Biology Vol 1, No 1 (2017): International Journal of Applied Biology
Publisher : Hasanuddin University

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Abstract

Research on the diversity of invertebrate epifaunas associating with mangroves in the Balangdatu village of Tanakeke regency, Takalar district, South Sulawesi, has been conducted from September to December 2016. The objective of this research was to know the diversity of invertebrate epifaunas associating with mangrove in Balangdatu Village of Tanakeke Islands. Sample collection was done by using explorative quantitatively plot methods with size 2 x 2 m, applied at three different stations. Data analysis includes calculation of Absolute density, Uniformity Index (Shannon-wiener), Dominance Index, and Distribution Index. The results showed that there were 13 species of epi fauna of 9 tribes, namely Littoraria sp 1, Cerithidea cingulata, Littoraria sp 2, Littoraria pallescens, Episesarma sp, Saccostrea cucullata, Pagurus sp, Terebralia sulcata, Cerithidea sp, Nerita planospira, Nisto histrio, Littoraria scabra, and Cassidula vespertilionis. The highest density was found in Littoraria scabra with a density of 0.72 ind/m2. Diversity indices are low which indicate depressed environmental conditions. Distribution Index values across stations <1 indicating that the pattern of individual dispersion tends to be uniform.
The Production of Chitosan from Shrimp Shell Waste and Its Formulation in Patch DosageForm Combined with Aloe vera Extract as Antiinfection Agent Haeriah, Haeriah; Rahmatullah, Muhammad; Indardaya, Andi; Utomo, Emilia; Novianti, Novianti; Sartini, Sartini
International Journal of Applied Biology Vol 1, No 1 (2017): International Journal of Applied Biology
Publisher : Hasanuddin University

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Abstract

Chitosan can be obtained from chitin isolated from shrimp waste through the process of deacetylation of chitin. Chitosan can be used as a patch base material because of its biocompatibility and biodegradability, and has antibacterial activity. The combination of Chitosan and Aloe vera extracts may be useful in patch dosage forms as wound dressings that have antiinfective activity. The research methods was laboratory experimental which consists of : chitosan was obtained from shell waste sequentially by deproteinisation, demineralisation, and deacetylation processes, and analyzed its characteristic, respectivel; Aloe vera gel was extraction by maceration methods using ethanol as solvent; patches were formulated using 2 % chitosan in 1.5 % glacial acetic acid,  1.6 %  Aloe vera extracts and 10 % glycerin and evaluated its physical propoperties,  skin iritation test, and antibacterial test against S.aureus. The results showed that percentage yield of chitosan was 32.67%, with characteristics; Its viscosity 93.33 cps, pH 4, 30 % deacetylation degree.  Percentage yield of Aloe vera  extract was 22.73%, containing acemannan, and had antibacterial activity against S.aureus.  The result of patch evaluation showed that the thickness of patch was 0.45 mm, 114 times folding endurance, moisture uptake of 45.03%, moisture content of 23.64%, safe to use, and  diameter of inhibition zone was 6.39 mm against S.aureus. So, combination of Aloe vera and Chitosan from shrimp shell as patch may use as antiinfection wound healing.  Keywords : Aloe vera L.; chitosan; wound dressing; patch; shrimp shell waste
A Study on Entrapment Efficiency of Earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus) Extract in the Ethosomal Drug Delivery System Pratiwi, Sabrina Resky; Ainiah, Nur; Hardyanti, Hardyanti; Putri, Dini Rusdayanti; Utomo, Emilia
International Journal of Applied Biology Vol 1, No 1 (2017): International Journal of Applied Biology
Publisher : Hasanuddin University

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Abstract

IntroductionEarthworms (Lumbricus rubellus) extract is known to contain  bioactive protein as antibacterial compounds. One of the disadvantages of polar compounds is slow penetration into the skin layers which can be solved by formulating it in the form of ethosomal drug delivery system. The aims of this research was to get information about ethanol concentration that can give the highest entrapment efficiency of the ethosome. MethodsEarthworms powder was macerated using 50% ethanol for 3 days. The extract was  formulated into ethosome with variation of ethanol concentration that are 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%, respectively. The measurement of entrapment efficiency was conducted by measuring the amount of active protein of earthworms extract that was entrapped in ethosome vesicles using spectrophotometer UV-Visible.ResultsThe results showed that the highest entrapment efficiency was 72.58 % performed by formula which was made with 0.5 % extract, 2 % soy lecithin and 50 % ethanol.ConclusionsThe highest percentage of entrapment efficiency of earthworms extract ethosome was 72.58%.Keywords : ethosome, ethanol concentration , entrapment efficiency, Lumbricus rubellus.