Mahmiah Mahmiah
Laboratory of Chemistry, Hang Tuah University, Jl. Arif Rahman Hakim 150 Surabaya

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PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY of MANGROVE PLANT Soneratia sp. Mahmiah, Mahmiah; Andayani, Rina
UNEJ e-Proceeding 2016: Proceeding of 1st International Conference on Medicine and Health Sciences (ICMHS)
Publisher : UNEJ e-Proceeding

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Abstract

At the moment, plants use as medicine are mostlyland plants, while plants derived from water such asmangroves have not received much attentions.Some of the mangrove plants that can be used asmedicine are Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia alba,Avicennia marina, Avicennia offinalis, Bruguieracylindrical, Bruguiera exaristata, Bruguieragymnorrhiza, Ceriops tagal, Hisbiscus tiliaceus,Ipomoea pes-capre, Lumnitzera racemosa, Nypafructicans, Pluchea indica Rhizophora apiculata,Soneratia sp., dan Sonneratia alba. The plants wereutilized as antiasma, antidiuretic, antidiabetic, itchrelieve, etc. Purnobasuki, 2004).One of the mangroves that are often found on theEast Coast of Surabaya, East Java is Soneratia sp ..which is classed as true mangrove flora.Ethnobotanically, the wood and stem are used astraditional medicine as pain reliever. Based onresearch conducted by Mahmiah (2012)studyingphytochemical aspect of Avicennia marina from eastcoast region of Surabaya,it was known that the stemand leaves of the plant contained phenoliccompounds.Taking into account the existence of the waves andextreme weather conditions in the East Coast regionof Surabaya, it was hypothesized that the secondarymetabolite compounds produced by the plantswould be different. Based on that hypothesis it wasnecessary to do a research on Soneratia sp. plantlocated on the East Coast of Surabaya with the aimof exploring the content of secondary metabolitesfrom the stem of the plant.Methods that were used to accomplish that aimwere (1) preliminary test; (2) phytochemicalscreening; (3) GC-MS analysis and (4) antioxidanttest
ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF METHANOL EXTRACTS FROM THE STEM BARK OF MANGROVE PLANT Rhizophora mucronata Mahmiah, Mahmiah; Giman, Giman; Aminah, Nanik Siti; Tanjung, Mulyadi
UNEJ e-Proceeding 2016: Proceeding of 1st International Conference on Medicine and Health Sciences (ICMHS)
Publisher : UNEJ e-Proceeding

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Numbers of diseases such as stroke, diabetes, gout,and even cancer are caused by the reaction of freeradicals (oxidants) found in the body. Those diseasescurrently have not yet controlled. Deleteriouslifestyle, lack of exercise, or genetics can be thetrigger to this oxidant. Based on Chemotaxonomic,drugs that have been used to inhibit the oxidationprocess or termination stage of free radicals containthe active ingredient in the form of secondarymetabolites of alkaloids, phenolics, terpenoids andsteroids. For example, phenolic compounds such asflavonoids, xanthones, antioxidants and polyphenolsis a good agent because it has a structure with a highdegree of oxidation (Suares, et al, 2010).Researches related to the exploration of antioxidantactive ingredient has been more focused onsecondary metabolites found in terrestrial plants.The development of natural compounds potential ofmarine plant material such as mangrove are still notreceived much attention. Spalding et al. in 2001explained that mangroves plant in Indonesia is thehighest in the world, both in terms of quantity area(± 42 550 km2) as well as the number of species (±45 species). This basic natural resource of Indonesiamangrove is certainly valuable promisingopportunities to be expanded as a biological drug.Mangroves plant that commonly used as medicinediscovered from various species i.e: Acanthusilicifolius, Avicennia alba, Avicennia marina,Avicennia offinalis, Bruguiera cylindrical, Bruguieraexaristata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Ceriops tagal,Hisbiscus tiliaceus, Ipomoea pes-capre, Lumnitzeraracemosa, Nypa fructicans, Pluchea indicaRhizophora apiculata, Rhizophora mucronata andSonneratia alba. Those plants are usually utilized asantiasma, antidiuretic, antidiabetic, reliever itching,and others. (Purnobasuki, 2004).The potential of mangroves as a drug is veryimportant to be developed considering the need fordrugs is increasing deals with the growing ofpopulation and many kinds of diseases such ascancer, hypertension, tumor diseases and diseasescaused by chemical or biological waste pollutionfrom viruses and bacteria. People are more likely tochoose drugs that are natural because relatively takefew side effects or even none at all.Several studies of mangrove plants from genusRhizophora that have antioxidant bioactivity areshown in the crude butanol extract of mangrove R.apiculata with IC50 33.34 pg / mL (Gao, 2012). Themethanol extract of R. mangle’s stem were alsodocumented to have antioxidant activity (Palacio, etal, 2014).One of mangroves found in Surabaya East Coastal(Pamurbaya), East Java, Indonesia is the mangroveRhizophora mucronata. This mangrove species isindigenous mangroves that ethno-botanicallypopular used as a pain reliever and dyes naturalwood. Secondary metabolites contained in theleaves, bark, stems, roots, and fruit are different inquantity. The content of secondary metabolites inplant commonly used as a medicine is from generalpart of the bark. Therefore, on the basis ofchemotaxonomic and ethno-botany of mangroves R.mucronata, this study aims to explore the bioactivityof antioxidant from the stem bark of R. mucronata.
ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION FLAVONOID COMPOUND FROM THE STEM BARK OF Saccopetalum horsfieldii BENN Mahmiah, Mahmiah
Indonesian Journal of Chemistry Vol 6, No 3 (2006)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (231.827 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/ijc.21738

Abstract

Isolation and identification flavonoid compound from the stem bark of Indonesian plant Saccopetalum horsfieldii Benn. Annonaceae family have been done. Extraction was carried out by maseration method using methanol at room temperature, the product was then extracted by n-hexane and etil acetate. Etil acetate extract separation carried out by liquid vacuum column chromatography and flash column chromatography. The product purificated by recristalization using acetone p.a. into yellow solid that having melting point of 224-226 °C. The structure of flavonoid compound was determinated by spectroscopy method : UV-vis, IR, 1H-NMR and 12C-NMR. The flavonoid compound known as quercetin-3,7-dimetil eter or 3,7-dimetoksi quercetin.                                                                                                                                                       Keywords: Saccopetalum horsfieldii Benn, flavonoid, chromatography, quercetin
AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK METANOL KULIT BATANG RHIZOPHORA MUCRONATA POIRET TERHADAP SALMONELLA THYPI, LIGNIèRES 1900 (ENTEROBACTERIACEAE : GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA) Mahmiah, Mahmiah; Rama, Serdian Pinaris; Riwanti, Pramudita
Jurnal Kelautan Tropis Vol 23, No 2 (2020): JURNAL KELAUTAN TROPIS
Publisher : Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14710/jkt.v23i2.5577

Abstract

Typhoid fever is an acute infectious disease of the small intestine caused by Salmonella typhi or Salmonella paratyphi A, B and C. Antibiotics commonly used for Salmonella infections are fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines. However, Salmonella has been resistant to these antibiotics. The many occurrences of antibiotic resistance encourage researchers to find solutions. Rhizophora mucronata is a mangrove from the family Rhizophoraceae. Phytochemically, Rhizophora mucronata is rich in many kinds of compounds such as tannins, alkaloids, flavanoids, terpenoids and saponins which important in suppressing pathogenic microorganisms. This study aims to determine the antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Rhizophora mucronata bark against the growth of Salmonella typhi bacteria looked at the clear zone around the well. This research is an experimental laboratory study using the well diffusion method. Rhizophora mucronata bark samples were extracted by maceration method. The results is the inhibition zone diameter methanol extract of Rhizophora mucronata bark with concentrations of 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% (b / v) classified as moderate (9.22 mm) to strong (13.78 mm) , the greater the concentration, the greater the diameter of the inhibition zone.  Demam tifoid adalah penyakit infeksi akut usus halus yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Salmonella typhi atau Salmonella paratyphi A, B dan C. Antibiotik yang umum digunakan dalam penatalaksanaan infeksi bakteri yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Salmonella adalah fluoroquinolones dan tetrasiklin. Akan tetapi, Salmonella telah mengalami resisten terhadap antibiotik tersebut. Rhizophora mucronata merupakan mangrove dari famili Rhizophoraceae. Secara fitokimia, Rhizophora mucronata kaya dengan beberapa macam senyawa seperti tannin, alkaloid, flavanoid, terpenoid dan saponin yang berperan penting dalam menekan mikroorganisme patogen. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak metanol kulit batang Rhizophora mucronata terhadap pertumbuhan bakteri Salmonella typhi dengan melihat adanya zona bening disekitar sumuran. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental laboratories dengan menggunakan metode difusi sumuran. Sampel kulit batang Rhizophora mucronata dilakukan ekstraksi dengan metode maserasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa diameter zona hambat yang dihasilkan oleh ekstrak metanol kulit batang Rhizophora mucronata dengan konsentrasi 20 %, 40 %, 60 % dan 80 % (b/v) tergolong sedang (9,22 mm) hingga kuat (13,78 mm), semakin besar kosentrasi maka semakin besar juga diameter zona hambatnya.
PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH GARAM (BITTERN) UNTUK PEMBUATAN MAGNESIUM KLORIDA (MgCl2) Gilmawan, Giman; Mahmiah, Mahmiah
Jurnal Riset Kelautan Tropis (Journal of Tropical Marine Research) (J-Tropimar) Vol 1, No 2: November 2019
Publisher : Universitas Hang Tuah

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.30649/jrkt.v1i2.31

Abstract

Pembuatan garam NaCl dari air laut dengan metode penambahan ion sejenis menghasilkan garam dengan kemurnian tinggi, dan mempunyai hasil samping berupa air tawar dan bittern. Bittern dapat dimanfaatkan untuk berbagai kepentingan, baik dalam bidang industri maupun kesehatan, salah satunya adalah sebagai sumber mineral magnesium. Magnesium yang diisolasi dari bahan dasar bittern dengan penambahan natrium hidroksida menghasilkan magnesium hidroksida, kemudian dirubah menjadi magnesium klorida dengan menambahkan asam klorida. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengisolasi mineral magnesium dari bahan dasar bittern. Hasil yang diperoleh berupa kristal MgCl2 yang berwarna putih bersifat higroskopis dengan kadar 65,5%.