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PERKEMBANGAN ILMU USHUL FIQH PASCA IMAM MADZHAB HINGGA ABAD MODERN (Kajian Terhadap Metode Ijtihad dan Penerapannya) Muthalib, Abdul
Hikmah Vol. 16 No. 2 (2019): Juli-Desember 2019
Publisher : STAI Sumatera Medan

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The purpose of this writing is to describe the description of the activities of ijtihad of the mujtahids in the post-Imams era and also in the modern era in solving problems that arose in that era. The method used in this paper is the literature study method. The results of the study indicate that, the period after the Imam's school of worship is called the taqlid, jumud or vacuum period. However, this does not mean that the activities of ijtihad were stopped altogether. At this time the activities of ijtihad can be seen from the gathering of the ideas of Islamic scholars, comparing the opinions of the Imams of madzahb to take the opinion that is considered the most powerful, formulating the basis of the footing and methods of ushuliyah which form the basis of ijtihad and fatwa of the Imams of the school of thought, both in the form of sharia (( شرح , hasyiah ( حشيه ) or in the form of khulashah. The revival or modern era began around 1800 AD. In this period, Islamic thinkers tried to reconstruct the ushul fiqh methodology that had previously been built by the Imam of the school of thought) The reason is that the methods of the Imam of the school are less relevant in answering the problems that arise, given the increasingly complex problems.
EVALUASI BIOLOGIS RADIOFARMAKA 186ReEDTMP SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF BONE PAIN PALLIATIVE AGENT Gunawan, Adang Hardi; Muthalib, Abdul; Bagiawati, Sri; Sovilawati, Evi; Lestiawati, Sri Aguswarini; Abidin, Abidin
Jurnal Radioisotop dan Radiofarmaka Vol 7, No 2 (2004): Jurnal PRR 2004
Publisher : Jurnal Radioisotop dan Radiofarmaka

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ABSTRAK Evaluasi Biologis Radiofarmaka 186Re_EDTMP (Ethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(methylene phosphonic acid» sebagai Alternatif Bone Pain Palliative Agent. Beberapa penyakit kanker seperti prostat, payudara, paru-paru dan ginjal dapat mengalami metastase ke tulang. Samarium153 EDTMP merupakan radiofarmaka yang sampai saat ini secara luas digunakan untuk mengurangi rasa sakit akibat metastase kanker ke tulang. Penandaan EDTMP dengan radionuklida 186Re telah berhasil dibuat dengan kemurnian radiokimia yang tinggi dan stabil sampai hari ke 8 setelah pembuatan. Pada komplek 186Re_EDTMP yang telah dibuat, dilakukan pengujian biologis seperti biodistribusi, uji pencucian dari darah, uji pencucian dari ginjal, uji lipofilisitas, uji pengikatan pada hidroksiapatit, pencitraan dengan kamera gamma, uji sterilitas dan uji pirogenitas. Hasil uji biodistribusi dan pencitraan dengan kamera gamma menunjukkan bahwa penimbunan pada tulang yang tinggi terjadi pada 24 jam setelah penyuntikan dan diperoleh gambaran kamera gamma yang lebih baik dari pada 2 jam setelah penyuntikan. Kadar kompleks dalam darah mencapai puncaknya setelah 5 menit setelah penyuntikan dan menurun drastis pada 1 jam setelah penyuntikan. Sedangkan dalam urin 24 jam setelah penyuntikan diperoleh aktivitas sekitar 38% yang diekskresikan dalam bentuk perenat bebas. Hasil uji pengikatan komplek dengan hidroksiapatit menunjukkan komplek terikat kuat pada hidroksiapatit (68%) sampai dengan hari ke 2 setelah pencampuran. Hasil pengujian sterilitas dan pirogenitas menunjukkan sediaan tersebut steril dan bebas pirogen. Kata Kunci : 186Re_EDTMP , tulang, kemurnian radiokimia, biodistribusi. ABSTRACT Biological Evaluation of 186Re_EDTMP (Ethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(methylene phosphonic acid» as an Alternative Bone Pain Palliative Agent. Bone pain is a common complication for patient with bone metastases from prostate, breasts, lung and renal cancers. Samarium-I53 EDTMP is one of the most widely used radiophannaceutical for the treatment of metastatic bone pain. Preparation of 186Re_EDTMP have been carried out with high radiochemical purity and this complex was stable up to 8 days. Biodistribution pattern of the injected complex in mice indicates that the accumulated optimum activity in the bone was obtained 24 hours post injection. Rhenium-186-EDTMP complex contents in the blood reach optimum activity after 5 minutes and decrease drastically at I hours post injection. The complex showed major renal clearance up to 38% as perrhenate ion within 24 hours after injection. Rhenium-186-EDTMP revealed strong binding to hidroxyapatite (± 68%) and stable up to 2 days. Sterility and pyrogenicity test indicated that the complex were sterile and pyrogen free. Keywords: 186Re_EDTMP, bone, radiochemical purity, biodistribution.  
Islamic Education Research Problem Muthalib, Abdul
Journal of Education and Learning (EduLearn) Vol 6, No 2: May 2012
Publisher : Intelektual Pustaka Media Utama

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.11591/edulearn.v6i2.150

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This paper will discuss Islamic educational studies that is reviewing how to find, limit and define problems and problem-solving concepts. The central question of this paper is to describe how to solve the problem in Islamic educational research. A researcher or educator who has the knowledge, expertise, or special interest on education for example is usually having a sensitivity to issues relating to educational research. In the research dimension of religious education, there are three types of problems, namely: Problems foundation, structural problems and operational issues. In doing research in Islamic education someone should understand research problem, limiting and formulating the problem, how to solve the problem, other problem relating to the point of research, and research approach.
The first report of myeloma with IgD κ and free κ in Indonesia Wirawan, Riadi; Utami, Lidya; Muthalib, Abdul
Medical Journal of Indonesia Vol 20, No 3 (2011): August
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia

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IgD κ myeloma is a rare plasma cell neoplasm case and has never been reported before in Indonesia. In normal condition, IgD level in blood is very low, therefore increase of IgD level in myeloma could be missed by serum protein electrophoresis. A case of a 59 years old female with severe bone pain is reported. In radiology evaluation, there were thoracal compression fracture and thoracal foramen narrowing. For this patient, the myeloma diagnosis was based on WHO criteria, the stage IIIb was based on Durie and Salmon criteria, and bad prognosis with prognostic index stage III diagnosis was based on International Prognostic Index from International Myeloma Working Group, respectively. In serum protein electrophoresis we found a very small monoclonal spike and in immunofi xation there were monoclonal IgD κ and free light chain κ. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:217-21)Keywords: immunofixation, myeloma IgD κ, protein electrophoresis
Ewing sarcoma of the left big toe with trans-articular skip lesion Kamal, Ahmad F.; Nagieb, Muhammad; Hutagalung, Errol U.; Budiatmoko, Bambang; Gumay, Saukani; Muthalib, Abdul
Medical Journal of Indonesia Vol 18, No 2 (2009): April-June
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia

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We report the case of the patient who had Ewing Sarcoma in whom radiological and hystopathological appearances revealed a tumor mass in the left big toe along with trans-artikular skip lesion on the left diaphysis of tibia. In Cipto Mangunkusomo Hospital since 1995 until 2004 we have found 20 Ewing sarcoma cases, but only one skip lesion Ewing sarcoma was found. The diagnosis of transarticular skip lesion in association of Ewing sarcoma was confirmed in clinicopathological conferrence. The initial evaluation of all patients included the recording of the medical history, physical examination, and hematological studies. Radiographs of the chest and the site of the primary tumor were made routinely. Systemic staging was performed with use of total-body bone scan. Ray amputation of left big toe and open biopsy from mass of mid-shaft of tibia had been done to confirm the diagnosis. The patient underwent induction chemotherapy and above knee amputation. Ten months after diagnosis, he died because of advanced-distant metastasis. (Med J Indones 2008; 18: 139-44)Key words: Ewing sarcoma, trans-articular skip lesion
Periosteal osteosarcoma: A case report Hutagalung, Errol U.; Librianto, Didik; Gumay, Saukani; Muthalib, Abdul; Budiatmoko, Bambang
Medical Journal of Indonesia Vol 12, No 3 (2003): July-September
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (139.892 KB) | DOI: 10.13181/mji.v12i3.104

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Periosteal osteosarcoma is a rare type of malignant bone neoplasm, with predominantly cartilaginous component and arising on the bone surface. Reports of the case in the literature were rare. Last case was reported by Mayo Clinic in 1999. We report a case of periosteal osteosarcoma in a 17-year-old male, who was treated surgically with a limb salvage procedure, neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy were also given to the patient. There was no local recurrence and lung metastases up to 14 months after surgery. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 166-70) Keywords: osteosarcoma, periosteal osteosarcoma, limb salvage
Prevalence and Distribution of Anemia Risk Factor in Patient with Chronic Hepatitis C who Has Combination therapy of Interferon Alpha and Ribavirin Akbar, Femmy Nurul; Albar, Zuljasri; Muthalib, Abdul; Lesmana, Laurentius; Akbar, Nurul
The Indonesian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Digestive Endoscopy VOLUME 7, ISSUE 1, April 2006
Publisher : The Indonesian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Digestive Endoscopy

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Background: Interferon alfa and ribavirin combination therapy is one of effective standard therapy for chronic hepatitis C (CHC.) However, anemia is a common side effect of this therapy that patients have to reduce or discontinue ribavirin therapy. But ribavirin dose reduction or discontinuation can reduce the effectivity of the therapy. Hence, it is important to know the prevalence of anemia and to determine the factors associated with anemia. Objective: To know the prevalence of anemia and some risk factors associated with anemia caused by the combination therapy in chronic hepatitis C. Method: Sixty one of CHC patients who received combination therapy were included in this study. The study used cross sectional design and data were obtained by measured complete blood count on 8th week of therapy. Result: Subjects 47 (77%) were males, 14 (23%) were females with mean age 38.9 years. Subjects had genotype 1 and 4 were 23 (71.9%) and 44 (72.1%) subjects received 1,000 mg ribavirin. Prevalence of anemia was found to be 52.5%. On multivariate analysis, only pretreatment hemoglobin concentration < 14 g/dl was found to be the risk factor of anemia. Conclusion: Prevalence of anemia was 52.5%. Pretreatment hemoglobin concentration < 14 g/dl was only found to be the risk factors of anemia. Although age > 50 years or female were not found to be the risk factor of anemia but patient with these risk factors should be carefully monitored. Intervention to prevent anemia should be considered to these patients. Eight subjects from 32 anemia patients had ribavirin dose reduction, and no patient had discontinuation treatment on 8th week of therapy.   Keywords: chronic hepatitis C, IFN-alfa- RIB combination therapy, risk factors of anemia
SINTESA ATP BERTANDA P-32 SEBAGAI PERUNUT BIOLOGI MOLEKUL Sarmini, Endang; Herlina, Herlina; Triyanto, Triyanto; Hambali, Hambali; Muthalib, Abdul; Nurbaiti, Santi
Jurnal Radioisotop dan Radiofarmaka Vol 14, No 1 (2011): Jurnal PRR 2011
Publisher : Jurnal Radioisotop dan Radiofarmaka

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SINTESA ATP BERTANDA P-32 SEBAGAI PERUNUT BIOLOGI MOLEKUL. Kebutuhan perunut DNAIRNA dalam perkembangan biolologi molekul di Indonesia saat ini sangat dirasakan. Salah satunya adalah nukleotida bertanda [?32p]_ATP yang banyak digunakan dalam penelitian bioteknologi. Penguasaan teknik sintesa nukleotida bertanda ini akan sangat mendukung penelitian dalam bidang biologi molekul. Sintesa ini dilakukan dengan reaksi enzimatis yang merupakan bagian dan proses glikolisis, dimulai dari fruktosa 1,6-diphosphat, nukleotida ADP dan radioisotop P-32 dengan menggunakan enzim aldolase, gliseraldehid 3-fosfat, 3-fosfogliseratkinase dan laktat dehidrogenase. Pemumiannya dengan menggunakan kolom kromatografi DEAE Sephadex. ATP bertanda yang dihasilkan berada pada Rf 0, dan P32 pada Rf 0,6. Diharapkan bahwa kebutuhan nukleotida bertanda di Indonesia dapat terpenuhi dengan dihasilkannya nukleotida bertanda [?32p]_ATP ini, yang juga merupakan dasar untuk sintesa nukleotida bertanda lainnya. Kata Kunci: Perunut DNA/RNA, Proses glikolisis, Enzimatis, Radioisotop P-32, Nukleotida bertanda 32p]_ATP ABSTRACT SYNTHESIS OF P-32 LABELED ATP FOR MOLECULAR BIOLOGY TRACER. DNA /RNA tracer demmand in the development of molecular biology in Indonesia is currently strongly felt. One of them is labeled nucleotide [?32p]_ATP which is widely used in biotechnology research. Capability of nucleotide synthesis techniques will support research in the field of molecular biology. This synthesis was done by enzymatic reactions which is a part of the glycolysis process, starting from fructose 1,6-diphosphat, ADP nucleotide and P-32 radioisotope by using aldolase enzyme, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, 3phosphoglycerate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase. Purification was perf0D11ed by using DEAE Sephadex column chromatography. The labeled ATP and P-32 were observed at Rf 0 and Rf 0.6. It is expected that the demand of labeled nucleotide in Indonesia can be fulfilled by the synthesized labeled nucleotide [?32p]_ATP that is the base for synthesis of other labeled nucleotide. Keywords: DNA/RNA tracer, glycolysis process, enzymatic, P-32 radioisotope, nucleotide labeled [?32p] ATP  
MODIFIKASI SINTESIS NUKLEOTIDA BERTANDA [γ-32 P] ATP Rahman, Wira Y.; Sarmini, Endang; herlina, herlina; Triyanto, Triyanto; Hambali, Hambali; Muthalib, Abdul; Nurbaiti, Santi
Jurnal Radioisotop dan Radiofarmaka Vol 16, No 1 (2013): JURNAL PRR 2013
Publisher : Jurnal Radioisotop dan Radiofarmaka

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ABSTRAKMODIFIKASI SINTESIS NUKLEOTIDA BERTANDA [Y-32P]ATP.Dalam perkembangan biologimolekul, radionuklida dalam bentuk senyawa bertanda telah digunakan sebagai perunut deoxyribonucleicacid (DNA)/ribonucleic acid (RNA) untuk mendalami berbagai macam proses fisiologi dan patologi. Salahsatu senyawa tersebut adalah nukleotida bertanda fosfor-32 (32P) [γ-32P]-adenosine triphosphate {[γ-32P]-ATP} yang banyak digunakan dalam penelitian biologi molekul. Untuk dapat menunjang penelitian biologimolekul di Indonesia, pada penelitian ini telah dilakukan pembuatan senyawa nukleotida bertanda [γ-32P]-ATP melalui reaksi enzimatis dengan melakukan modifikasi pada metoda sintesisnya menggunakanprekursor DL-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, nukleotida adenosine di-phosphate (ADP) dan H332PO4, sertaenzim gliseraldehid 3-phosphat dehidrogense, 3-phosphogliserat-kinase dan laktat dehidrogenase. Pemurnian[γ-32P]-ATP hasil sintesis dengan menggunakan kolom kromatografi DEAE-Sephadex. Dari proses sintesisdan pemurnian yang telah dilakukan berhasil diperoleh [γ-32P]-ATP dengan aktifitas 1,175 mCi dankemurnian radiokimia 99,49%. Dengan berhasilnya dilakukan sintesis dan pemurnian [γ-32P]-ATP, makaPusat Radiosiotop dan Radiofarmaka akan dapat menyediakan nukleotida bertanda dimaksud di atas untukmenunjang penelitian biologi molekul di Indonesia.Kata Kunci: nukleotida bertanda [γ-32P]ATP, sintesis, reaksi enzimatis, pemurnianABSTRACTMODIFICATION OF SYNTHESIS NUCLEOTIDES [Y-32P] ATP.In molecular biology, radionuclidesin the form of radiolabeled compounds have been widely used as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) / ribonucleicacid (RNA) tracer in order to explore a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. One of suchcompounds is [γ-32P]-adenosine triphosphate {[γ-32P]-ATP} [γ-32P]-ATP which has been widely used in thebiotechnology research. In order to support the biotechnology research in Indonesia in this project, [γ-32P]-ATP had been synthesized by enzymatic reactions with modifying the method of synthesis using theprecursor DL-glyceraldehydde 3-phosphate, nucleotides Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) and H332PO4 andenzymes glyceraldehid 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 3-phosphoglyceryc phosphokinase and lactatedehydrogenase. The purification of the synthesized [γ-32P]-ATP, by using DEAE Sephadex columnchromatography.  The synthesis and purification process that had been performed were able in producing of[γ-32P]-ATP with radioactivity of 1,175 mCi and  radiochemical purity of 99,49%.. Having successfullyprepared the [γ-32P]-ATP and application, in the near future the Radioiotopes and RadiopharmaceuticalsCentre is expected to be able in providing the above-mentioned radiolabeled nucleotide for biotechnologyresearch in Indonesia.Key words : labeled nucleotide [γ-32P]-ATP, synthesis, enzimatic reaction, purification
Uji Kemurnian Dan Stabilitas Radiokimia 153SmCl3 dengan Ligan EDTMP (Ethylene Diamine Tetramethylene Phosphanate) yang Berasal dari Tulang Sapi Fitria, Najmiatul; Djamal, Rusdi; Muthalib, Abdul
Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi Farmasi Vol 17 No 2 (2012)
Publisher : Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Andalas

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Purity and stability evaluation post-production of labelled compound 153SmCl3 with EDTMP have been studied. Purity evaluation of 153SmCl3 and 153Sm-EDTMP were conducted using thin layer chromatographic principle on Whatman No.1. Stability evaluation of 153SmCl3 and 153Sm-EDTMP were conducted using visual observation on color and pH changes. Table showes that purity of 153Sm-EDTMP was ± 98- 99 %. It means ± 1-2 % rest was free 153Sm+3 which is left on drop point chromatographic paper. Table also describes t-student analyses that t (-0.545) < t table (2.306). It means storage time did not affect the purity of 153Sm-EDTMP.