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Journal : Oceana Biomedicina Journal

Detection of genes encoding ompW and ctxA of Vibrio cholerae isolated from shrimp and shellfish at Kedonganan fish market, Bali-Indonesia Kusuma Praja, Rian Arinta; Sukrama, I Dewa Made; Fatmawati, Ni Nengah Dwi
Oceana Biomedicina Journal Vol 2, No 1 (2019): Oceana Biomedicina Journal
Publisher : Universitas Hang Tuah

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (251.1 KB) | DOI: 10.30649/obj.v2i1.23

Abstract

Contamination of pathogenic bacteria in food can lead to the emergence of foodborne disease. One of foodborne disease which often occurs in some developing countries such as Africa, Southeast Asia, and Latin America is cholera which is caused by Vibrio cholerae. The disease is transmitted through beverages and food, especially contaminated seafood. V. cholerae has several virulence factors including the outer membrane protein W (ompW) and cholerae toxin (ctx).The ompW acts as a protective barrier and can also be used as a marker specific species of V. cholerae and cholerae toxin is an enterotoxin responsible for the incidence of diarrhea in a cholera outbreak produced by pathogenic V. cholerae. This study was an observational study to determine the level of contamination of V. cholerae by detecting the outer membrane protein W (ompW) and cholerae toxin subunit A (ctxA) gene of V. cholerae in shrimp and shellfish sold at Kedonganan fish market. Samples were taken using total sampling technique and obtained 24 samples consisting of 14 shrimp samples and 10 shellfish samples. Samples were examined using culture methods and biochemical tests, and then further tested using Duplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (dPCR) to detect ompW and ctxA gene. The dPCR assay results showed 8 out of 14 (57.1%) samples from shrimp and 1 out of 10 (10%) samples from the shellfish positive carried ompW gene, and found no positive samples carrying the ctxA gene in samples derived from shrimp and shellfish. Chi square test analysis results indicated contamination of V. cholerae in shrimp was higher than shellfish based on ompW gene (p<0.05). It can be concluded that the shrimp and shellfish at Kedonganan fish market are contaminated by V. cholerae. Further research is needed to detect the virulence factors besides ompW and ctxA of V. cholerae in seafood. Keywords: Foodborne disease, Vibrio cholerae, ompW gene, ctxA gene, and Duplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (dPCR).
Molecular Mechanism of Cholerae Toxin (ctx) in Causing Diarrhea Praja, Rian Kusuma Arinta; Rosalina, Reny
Oceana Biomedicina Journal Vol 1, No 2 (2018): Oceana Biomedicina Journal
Publisher : Universitas Hang Tuah

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (761.654 KB) | DOI: 10.30649/obj.v1i2.16

Abstract

Vibrio cholerae is one of the pathogenic bacteria transmitted through contaminated food, especially seafood and contaminated beverages. V. cholerae produces cholerae toxin (ctx) which is encoded by the ctx gene located within its chromosome. This toxin has been recognized as one of the toxins responsible for cholera outbreaks. The mechanism of ctx gene expression is induced by environmental signals such as pH, osmolarity, temperature, bile, amino acids, and CO2. These signals will be a positive transcriptional factor to the ToxR gene that regulates the biogenesis of cholerae toxin. After cholerae toxin has been successfully expressed, V. cholerae uses a type II secretion (T2S) pathway to deliver cholerae toxin to the extracellular environment. Cholerae toxin consists of A and B subunits. The B subunit plays a role in attaching to the receptor Manosialosyl Ganglioside (GM1 ganglioside) and the A subunit plays a role in catalyzing ADP-ribosylation of Gs (stimulatory) proteins and turning them into active condition. The Gs proteins will convert the inactive adenilate cyclase (AC) into active AC. The increase of AC activity will increase the cyclic adenosine 3'5'-monophosphate (cAMP) concentration along the cell membrane. The cAMP then causes the active secretion of sodium (Na+), chloride (Cl-), potassium (K+), bicarbonate (HCO3-), and water (H2O) out of the cell into the intestinal lumen, resulting in large fluid losses and electrolyte imbalances. Keywords: Vibrio cholerae, cholerae toxin (ctx), ToxR gene, type II secretion (T2S), GM1 ganglioside, adenilate cyclase.
The infection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in shrimp and human Praja, Rian Ka
Oceana Biomedicina Journal Vol 1, No 1 (2018): Oceana Biomedicina Journal
Publisher : Universitas Hang Tuah

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (258.508 KB) | DOI: 10.30649/obj.v1i1.6

Abstract

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an aquatic zoonotic agent that can threaten human and aquaculture animal health. Humans can be infected by consuming contaminated raw seafood or wound-related infections. Generally infection of V. parahemolyticus is orally transmitted and causes gastroenteritis in humans while in aquaculture animals especially shrimp can cause Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) or Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS) with a very high mortality rate and cause economic losses. Shrimp species susceptible to infection are Litopenaeus vannamei, Penaeus monodon, and P. chinensis. V. parahaemolyticus produces several toxins in human disease such as thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH), TDH-related haemolysin (TRH), and thermolabile hemolysin (TLH). Meanwhile, Photorabdus insect-related (Pir) toxins consisting of PirAvp and PirBvp are the toxins associated with AHPND in shrimp. The genes that encode the toxin are used as targets to diagnose V. parahaemolyticus pathogens molecularly. Until now the treatment of V. parahaemolyticus infection is using antibiotics and fluid therapy, but there were V. parahaemolyticus isolates from aquaculture that have been resistant to antibiotics so that the use of antibiotics in aquaculture must be controlled and the use of alternative therapy are very important to be developed to control V. parahaemolyticus infection. Keywords: V. parahaemolyticus, zoonotic, gastroenteritis, Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND), Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS).