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INDONESIA
MAKARA of Social Sciences and Humanities Series
Published by Universitas Indonesia
ISSN : 2355794X     EISSN : 24069183     DOI : -
Arjuna Subject : -
Articles 158 Documents
Japanese-Chinese Import Trade Competition During The 1930s Crisis Nawiyanto .
MAKARA of Social Sciences and Humanities Series Vol 13, No 2 (2009): Desember
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Public Service, Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

In the Indonesian historiography, the contest for market between the Chinese and indigenous traders has long attracted much scholarly attention, however this issue was actually only part of the story. This article seeks to elaborate the Japanese and Chinese import trade competition in Java during the 1930s depression. Drawing upon both primary and secondary historical materials, it is argued that instead of creating a time of hardships, the crisis paved the way for Japan’s import trade expansion. Benefiting from the creation of large market for cheap products among the customers in Java suffering from a decline in purchasing power and their owned trade networks, a great number of Japan products will soon controlle the market. The Chinese found that their well-established economic position was seriously threatened. Although Japan’s fast rising market domination was eventually removed, it was due to the changing of the socio-political environment that created major obstacles for the Japanese to maintain its position, rather than that of the responses of the Chinese traders.Keywords: 1930s crisis, Chinese traders, import trade, Japanese traders, Java
CHINA’S ROLE IN INDONESIA’S “CRUSH MALAYSIA” CAMPAIGN A. Dahana
MAKARA of Social Sciences and Humanities Series Vol 6, No 2 (2002): Desember
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Public Service, Universitas Indonesia

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This paper argues that contrary to the traditionally accepted opinion, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) participated in the Indonesian campaign to crush Malaysia half-heartedly. In fact, despite its strong propaganda broadcast in supporting Indonesia, the PRC was actually a passive participant in the campaign. This is due to the fact that at that time the Chinese supported Malayan Communist Party, which was pursuing a more conciliatory policy toward the Malaysian government. Furthermore, China was probably more concerned with the well-being of ethnic Chinese Malaysia than supporting the local communist party. Keywords: Sino-Indonesian relations, Sino-Malaysian relations, Indonesia politics and diplomacy, Chinese politics and diplomacy, Malaysian politics and diplomacy.
HOW DOES COURSEWARE’S DESIGN AFFECT LEARNERS’ COGNITIVE-STRATEGY? Sri Hartati R. Suradijono
MAKARA of Social Sciences and Humanities Series Vol 7, No 1 (2003): Juni
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Public Service, Universitas Indonesia

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The emergence of the computer as an aid to education, with its unlimited range of instructional control options available to designer and user supports the vast development of coursewares. Hundreds of coursewares, aim to increase learners’ learning outcomes were developed. However, to have a courseware fits with learners’ characteristics many issues need to be explored. Referring to Resnick’s (1989) definition of learning as knowledge construction, it is critical for coursewares to support learners in the process of acquiring, retaining, and retrieving different kinds of knowledge and performance. In acquiring, retaining, and retrieving information learners use procedures known as cognitive strategies. It is assumed that cognitive strategies are integral to the process of learning, but initiation of their use may come from the learner’s self-instruction, or, from an instructional unit or system. This study intends to show how courseware design affects the use of cognitive strategies, especially from the high-school learners in Indonesia. A close examination on the psychological processes in learning was made to address questions: (a) how does screen density affect the use of cognitive strategies? (b) Does material presented in a linear format differs with material presented in non-linear (hypertext-based) in producing learner’s learning outcomes? The results show that learners employed better cognitive strategies when presented with 25% text density material compare to 60%. Hypertext-based courseware was also found to have an effect on how learner processed the information. Keywords: courseware, cognitive-strategy, computer-assisted instruction (CAI), knowledge construction
THE DEMAND FOR NEW CARS AND THE INDEX OF CONSUMER SENTIMENT Siddharta Utama
MAKARA of Social Sciences and Humanities Series Vol 7, No 1 (2003): Juni
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Public Service, Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

The index ofconsumer sentiment (ICS) has been widely employed as a proxy for future buying confidence to predict future aggregate buying behavior. This study empirically compares two forecast models: the expectation model thatincludes the ICS as an explanatory variable and the traditional model that does not include the ICS. The models are employed to estimate the aggregate demand for new cars in the U.S. from 1976 to 1984. The results indicate that the ICS has a positive relation with new car sales. On the basis of the likelihood dominance criterion, however, the traditional model is preferred to the expectation model. Furthermore, the forecast ability of the expectation model is slightly inferior to the traditional modelKeywords : Index of Consumer Sentiment (ICS), Demand for New Cars, Forecast Model
TEORI DWIKOMPONEN: SEBUAH PARAMETER UNTUK MENGUKUR ASPEK Lucy R. Montolalu
MAKARA of Social Sciences and Humanities Series Vol 7, No 1 (2003): Juni
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Public Service, Universitas Indonesia

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This paper presents a unified theory of aspect as a parameter of Universal Grammar. Smith provides an unusual combination of syntactic, semantic and pragmatic approaches to a single domain as well as detailed linguistic analyses of languages with very different aspectual systems. Extensive discussion of the linguistic evidence is complemented by a formal semantic treatment, set in the framework of Discourse Representation Theory. The analysis offers an explicit procedure to arrive at the aspectual meaning of a sentence from its syntactic surface structure. Among the theoretical innovations are a principled account of the interaction between viewpoint aspect and situation type. Keywords: two component theory, aspectual meaning ,aspect, situation aspect, view point aspect, discourse representation theory
KEARIFAN DALAM BAHASA SEBUAH TINJAUAN PRAGMATIS TERHADAP PROFIL KEBAHASAAN MEDIA MASSA PADA MASA PASCAORDE BARU F. X. Rahyono; Irzanti Sutanto; Ratnawati Rachmat; Dwi Puspitorini
MAKARA of Social Sciences and Humanities Series Vol 9, No 2 (2005): Desember
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Public Service, Universitas Indonesia

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The Wisdom of Language A Pragmatic Study on the Profile of the Post-New Order Era Mass Media Language. “Total Reformasi!” is the slogan circulated in the public discourse of the post-New Order era. All kinds of condemnation, grievances, and anger have been raised in various discourses, from formal to informal dialogues. In such an era, people’s collective memory is mostly associated with uncontrollable events, and it is eventually represented in the discourse of “the overdosed Reformasi” (Reformasi yang kebablasan). A word, phrase, and sentence basically have the potential of expressing both referential and contextual meanings. From a pragmatic point of view, a word, phrase, or sentence has a capacity to express either wise or unwise intentions. “Unwise intention” in the context of this research is defined as an act of transgressing or violating the ethics and etiquettes of a society. How can the discourse of Reformasi be constructed wisely? Is it necessary to appropriate unwise vocabulary in public discourses? Who holds the responsibility for fostering public wisdom? The wisdom of language has nothing to do whatsoever with manipulative acts in information dissemination. The wisdom of language relates to strategies of choosing certain linguistic features. Wisdom is a collective responsibility. A wise language would not be able to fully exist unless all of the related parties and resulting events make a concerted effort towards wisdom. Wisdom does not involve itself in the tug of war between the right and freedom of participating in discursive formations. Keywords: wisdom, discourse, pragmatic, information, meaning
VALUING LANGUAGE AND CULTURE: AN EXAMPLE FROM SASAK Mahyuni .
MAKARA of Social Sciences and Humanities Series Vol 11, No 2 (2007): Desember
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Public Service, Universitas Indonesia

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No one disputes that possession of language is one of the most distinctive of all human cultural attributes. The most fundamental argument has to do with the nature of language as social practice. An attempt to divorce language from its cultural context is to ignore the social circumstances which give it resonance and meaning. In the case of Sasak, language use reinforces the existing status differential and social value of language associated with the group. This perspective is employed, in this paper, to tackle the issue of Sasak language and culture. keywords: culture, linguistic determinism, linguistic relativism, nature of language
JURNALISME WARGA DI INDONESIA, PROSPEK DAN TANTANGANNYA Moch. Nunung Kurniawan
MAKARA of Social Sciences and Humanities Series Vol 11, No 2 (2007): Desember
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Public Service, Universitas Indonesia

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This paper examines the experience of Radio Elshinta in Jakarta with people-initiated journalism long before the descriptor "citizen journalism" emerged as a topic of research in academic level. Elshinta has 100,000 listeners, most with no formal training in journalism, contributing to its news broadcast since 2000. This study compares Elshinta's experience with a popular online citizen media portal Ohmynews in South Korea and attempts to identify the catalysts of 'citizen journalism' in the two countries. The case study is complemented by interviews with journalists from Ohmynews and Elshinta. The study concludes that despite the low penetration of internet in Indonesia, the predominantly oral culture and low level of education, the main factors for Elshinta's productive engagement with its listeners are (a) the predominantly oral culture in Indonesia; (b) low literacy, thus they rely on radio as the primary source of information and entertainment; and (c) the popularity of mobile phones for interpersonal communication. However, Indonesian television and printed media have been slow in catching up with people-initiated journalism because of: (a) fear over losing its reputation as credible media organizations, and thus commercial trust; and (b) conflict between unedited reports by untrained reporters with the professional code of ethics and Press Law. Other obstacles in broadering people-initiated journalism in Indonesian mainstream media are the slow uptake of amateur handy-cam images by TV stations, slow internet access, lack of writing skills, and lack of interactivity in existing online news sites. keywords: radio, citizen journalism, internet, mainstream media
AKTUALISASI PERAN SOSIAL WANITA CINA DI JABODETABEK R. Tuty Nur Mutia Muas; Eddy Prabowo Witanto
MAKARA of Social Sciences and Humanities Series Vol 9, No 2 (2005): Desember
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Public Service, Universitas Indonesia

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Actualization Of Chinese Women’s Social Role In Jabodetabek. This research is based on a primary question "Why the actualization of Chinese women's social role is not frequently seen in Indonesia?"; Does it happen because of their 'double minority' position? ; Do they have willingness to show their social role in society? ; And some other questions around the issue which are interesting to find the answer. The focus of this research relates to human behavior which is hard to measure, so this research uses qualitative research methodology which is based on symbolic interaction perspective. An analysis on 101 respondents' answers to the questionnaires, and the result of action research and deep interview with some people who have been chosen, give us some conclusions. One of them: as human beings, even though Chinese women in Jabodetabek are on double minority position, they still have the willingness to actualize their social role. The area that becomes their primary choice is in religion, but some of them choose other areas like arts, sports, even politics. Their primary obstacle for actualizing the role in social life is the process of exclusiveness that has happened and has been carried out in their daily lives whether they realize it or not. It happens on their four social living aspects: tradition, language, education, and social environment. The main factor that has motivated them is their self awareness as part of Indonesian society. However, the material interest also has a slight influence on them. Keywords: Chinese women, Actualization, Social role, Exclusiveness
CONCEPT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF PARTICIPATION AND EMPOWERMENT: REFLECTION FROM THE COFFEE IPM-SECP Muhammad Iqbal
MAKARA of Social Sciences and Humanities Series Vol 11, No 2 (2007): Desember
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Public Service, Universitas Indonesia

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Participation and empowerment are two important keywords in agricultural development program. One of the agricultural programs that considerably implemented through farmer's participation towards empowerment is Integrated Pest Management (IPM). This article reviews the reflection of the concepts and implementations of farmer's participation and empowerment in the coffee Integrated Pest Management for Smallholder Estate Crops (IPM-SECP). It can be explained that farmers were participated only in the planning and implementation stages of the project, while monitoring and evaluation activities were solely done by the project implementing unit and other related agencies. In the planning stage, the extent of farmer's participation can be categorized as pseudo participation since farmers only participated if they were the head of farmer's group or local model farmers. Meanwhile, in the implementation stage, it was found that farmers had a high extent of participation in the various activities and practices of training carried out by the project. Nevertheless, farmers were empowered in terms of knowledge and skills gained, change in practices, decision-making, productivity, and environmental awareness. As a result, farmer's participation should be anchored in all stages of planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation, so that they would be able to get immediate genuine empowerment feedback of the project impact. keywords: participation, empowerment, coffee, IPM, East Java

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