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INDONESIA
Kinetika
ISSN : 16939050     EISSN : 26231417     DOI : -
Artikel ilmiah yang dipublikasikan merupakan hasil-hasil riset/penelitian dalam bidang Teknik Kimia, Bioteknologi, Energi dan Lingkungan, Agroindustri dan pangan, serta Petrokimia.
Articles 79 Documents
PERVAPORATION TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR ABSOLUTE ETHANOL PRODUCTION (ETHANOL FUEL GRADE) Aswan, Arizal; Yuliati, Selastia; Junaidi, Robert
KINETIKA Vol 3, No 3 (2012): KINETIKA 01112012
Publisher : Teknik Kimia Politeknik Negeri Sriwijaya

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Abstract

Membrane pervaporation of ethanol vapor is a purification process based on grade with a purity level is high enough, so that the resulting product is called fuel grade ethanol. Fuel grade the process of increasing ethanol used as a fuel alternative. In this study the ethanol content is done by pervaporation technology method that utilizes a cellulose nitrate membrane separation media. Studies have been conducted on the effect of pressure on the value of the permeate flux and membrane selectivity in pervaporation process. Results showed that operating conditions at a temperature of 100 - 140oC, linear flow rate of 2.5 m3/ h, the variation of permeate side pressure of 500 mbar, 550 mbar, 600 mbar, 650 mbar and 700 mbar produces flux and selectivity values are declining. Optimum conditions reached at permeate side pressure is 700 mbar with the flux values 3.4673 x 10-5 Kg/m2.h and selectivity 0.1257. In these conditions the produce fuel grade ethanol yield reached 99.48%. Ethanol is converted into fuel feed grade reaches ± 99%, with a total volume of 193 ml of the feed volume 200 ml.
DELIGNIFICATION BY USING ALKALINE-ACID PRETREATMENT ON BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM RICE STRAW Jannah, Asyeni Miftahul
KINETIKA Vol 4, No 2 (2013): KINETIKA 01072013
Publisher : Teknik Kimia Politeknik Negeri Sriwijaya

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Abstract

Rice straw as agricultural waste contains cellulose that potentially to produce ethanol. However, it has lignin content that will inhibit the enzyme in converting glucose into ethanol. In this research, pretreatment steps aim to release and breakdown lignin in rice straw. Pretreatment was conducted in two phases, alkaline pretreatment using NaOH (1%,2%,3%,4%,and 5%) and acid pretreatment using 1% H2SO4 with various heating time (30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes) and used for ethanol production by means of Simultaneous Sacchari?cation and Fermentation (SSF) with cellulose enzyme and Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. The results showed that higher NaOH concentration using on alkaline pretreatment and longer heating time on acid pretreatment made morbe degraded lignin content. The highest ethanol content produced was 48.38% from delignification treatment with NaOH concentration of 5% and acid pretreatment time of 150 minutes.
PENYIMPANAN DAN PEMANFAATAN ENERGI HIDROGEN HASIL PRODUKSI REAKTOR ALUMINIUM CORROSION AND ELECTROLYSIS SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKAR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE DAN PENGELASAN LOGAM Erlinawati, Erlinawati
KINETIKA Vol 8, No 2 (2017): KINETIKA 01072017
Publisher : Teknik Kimia Politeknik Negeri Sriwijaya

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Abstract

Pencemaran udara yang diakibatkan oleh gas buang kendaraan bermotor berbahan bakar hidrokarbon sudah pada kondisi yang sangat memprihatinkan. Salah satu alternatif bahan bakar pengganti bahan bakar konvensional adalah hidrogen. Metode yang digunakan untuk menghasilkan hidrogen dalam penelitian ini yaitu dengan cara elektrolisis dan reaksi korosi aluminium. Gas hidrogen dipilih sebagai bahan bakar dikarenakan gas hidrogen tidak menghasilkan emisi COx seperti bahan bakar hidrokarbon umumnya. Adapun penyimpanan hidrogen dengan menggunakan metode adsorpsi pada material berpori seperti karbon aktif dan zeolit untuk meningkatkan energi hidrogen yang tersimpan di storage. Energi hidrogen tertinggi dengan adsorben zeolit pada tekanan 1,7 kg/cm2 dan temperatur 35oC sebesar 9,4365 J/L dan paling rendah tanpa adsorben pada tekanan 0,25 kg/cm2 dan temperatur 33,5oC sebesar 0,9761 J/L. Adapun metode pengujian Internal Combustion Engine yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu dengan cara mengamati kerja yang dihasilkan oleh Internal Combustion Engine serta mengukur jumlah bahan bakar yang digunakan. Efisiensi kerja merupakan salah satu parameter kualitas suatu mesin konversi energi, dalam hal ini efisiensi kerja Internal Combustion Engine. Adapun hasil penelitian menunjukan efisiensi kerja yang dihasilkan oleh Internal Combustion Engine berkisar antara 25,7?28,4%. Semakin besar laju alir hidrogen maka kerja yang dihasilkan juga semakin besar.Untuk konsumsi energi tertinggi terjadi pada proses pemotongan logam baja. Hal ini dikarenakan baja memiliki tingkat kekerasan atau titik leleh yang lebih tinggi yaitu sebesar 1540°C sedangkan titik leleh aluminium 660,3°C dan besi 1538°C, untuk spesific fuel consumption tertinggi terjadi pada proses pemotongan aluminium. Hal ini disebabkan karena aluminium memiliki densitas yang paling kecil yaitu sebesar 2,7 gr/cm3 dibandingkan dengan baja sebesar 7,85 gr/cm3 dan besi sebesar 7,75 gr/cm3.
EFFECT OF CATALYST IN VOLUME PERCENT YIELD BIODIESEL FROM STEARIN BY TRANSESTERIFICATION PROCESS Erlinawati, M.T, Ir.
KINETIKA Vol 2, No 2 (2011): KINETIKA 01072011
Publisher : Teknik Kimia Politeknik Negeri Sriwijaya

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Abstract

Use of fuel oil is increasingly high, but the problem is not in line with the production of fuel oil which is increasingly lower, so to anticipate and meet the fuel needs of the growing diesel engine, it requires a search and research on alternative fuels. To slow and reduce dependence on petroleum fuels is one of them is the use of biodiesel fuel. Biodiesel is a fuel alternative to petroleum. The use of biodiesel can be blended with petroleum diesel (diesel). Biodiesel is generally easy to use, is biodegradable, nontoxic, and free of sulfur and aromatics. Making biodiesel at this research as a form of anticipatory problem. Research on effects of the volume of catalyst in the manufacture of biodiesel by transesterification process that has been done to produce optimum conditions just as the use of stearin as much as 500 ml, catalyst volume of 25 ml and 175 ml using transesterification temperature between 60-65°C for one hour so that the obtained yield 65.42%, density 0.875 g/ml, pH 6.95, water content 0.014%, flash point 179oC, Calorific Value of 6318 cal/g and cetane number of 64.5. This shows that the more volume of catalyst and methanol is added to the product yield will be higher but the temperature and time used must match the type of solvent and catalyst when the transesterification.
UTILIZATION OF FRESNEL LENS AS SOLAR THERMAL COLLECTOR USING STIRLING ENGINE Zikri, Ahmad
KINETIKA Vol 8, No 3 (2017): KINETIKA 01112017
Publisher : Teknik Kimia Politeknik Negeri Sriwijaya

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Abstract

This solar energy stirling engine is one of the alternatives to be used as a power plant. This solar energy will beconcentrated and stored in the battery / battery with a heat source that is focused on the stirling engine with fresnel lens. Due to the non-continuous solar energy in order to generate electricity continuously, the thermal storage fluid is used and completed by isolator materials. This Thermal storage fluid can store heat for a long enough time so that the stirling machine can run when the sun is in an unstable state of irradiation. Fluid used in this research are paraffin liquid, lubricant oil and sesame oil. The ability of the thermal storage fluid to store heat will affect the power generated on the stirling engine. From these conditions, the researchers utilizing solar energy using a fresnel lens-based stirling engine using various isolator. During this test by determining the temperature of the thermal storage fluid can know the power generated from the stirling machine. The use of insulators with thermal conductivity values (k) of each test material were glasswool, styrofoam, polyurethane foam, and aluminum foil, is consecutively 0.038 W/moC, 0.033 W/moC, 11.6 W/moC, 0.062 W/moC. The observation results show that temperature drop from 200oC to 160oC using glasswool can hold longer for 8.2 minutes and styrofoam and polyurethane foam can withstand temperature dropping for 7 minutes. The avarages power generated using an insulator is 8 Watt
USING OF STRAW ASH AS ADDITIVE MATERIAL CEMENT Junaidi, Robert; S.T.,M.T., Zulkarnain; Santoso, Heru
KINETIKA Vol 3, No 3 (2012): KINETIKA 01112012
Publisher : Teknik Kimia Politeknik Negeri Sriwijaya

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Abstract

In this research, Portland cement type 1 made by using raw material clinker and gypsum from production unit in cement plant and also with adding straw ash from the combustion of straw rice plant, the adding of straw ash performed on a particular composition which is 0%, 5%, 8%, 12% and 15%. The purpose of the research is to know the effect of adding straw ash opposite the quality of Portland cement type 1 and to know about the best composition of adding straw ash to get Portland cement type 1 according with SNI-15-2049-2004. The benefits of the research are to reduce the level of environmental pollution and to increase the value of straw rice plant. Portland cement type 1 that has been created will be done some analysis to determine the quality of the cement, such as cement chemical composition analysis using X-Ray spectrometer, determination of free lime, determination of lost on ignition, determination of Blaine and determination of compressive strength mortar. So hoping the Portland cement type 1 that has been created is according SNI 15-2049-2009.  The result of the research show that the all of adding straw ash is got cement with compressive strength, free lime disposal, loss on ignition disposal, and Blaine of cement according with SNI 15-2049-2009 with the maximum adding of the straw ash is 15 % where at this adding straw ash is got compressive strength equal 476 Kg/cm2, free lime equal 1, 01 %, loss on ignition equal 2, 78 %, and Blaine equal 6125 cm2/gr.
PENGARUH SUPLAI ARUS LISTRIK DAN JUMLAH SEL ELEKTRODA TERHADAP PRODUKSI GAS HIDROGEN DENGAN ELEKTROLIT ASAM SULFAT ., Erlinawati; Zikri, Ahmad
KINETIKA Vol 5, No 1 (2014): KINETIKA 01032014
Publisher : Teknik Kimia Politeknik Negeri Sriwijaya

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Abstract

Utilization of water as an alternative energy one is to turn it into a gaseous form through the process of electrolysis. To change the water into the gas flow of electrical current needed and plate electrodes to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen gas. Variations of current are 5, 10 and 15 amperes, while for plate electrodes made with dimensions of 96 cm2. From that problem, the prototype of Hydrogen Fuel Reactor is designed. The purpose of this tool is used to generate hydrogen gas. Flow variations and number plate electrode was used as a fixed variable to calculate how the efficiency of the electricity used, Specific Fuel Consume and percent of energy loss. From the calculation, the hydrogen gas produced increases with the amount of electric current is used, the highest hydrogen gas obtained at 15 ampere current and electrode plate 8 which is 0.2324 moles then the lowest 0.1373 mol at 5 ampere current and electrode 4 plates. From electrical efficiency, increasing according to the number plate electrodes is used. The highest efficiency obtained at 5 ampere current and electrode plate 8 which is 41.2020% and 20.5811% the lowest in 15 ampere current and electrode plate 8. As for the percent of heat loss is inversely proportional to the efficiency, the lower the efficiency of the percent of heat loss is greater, and vice versa. While the value of specific fuel consumption (SFC) increased as the amount of electric current that is used.
Prototipe Reaktor Biogas Berbahan Baku Limbah Ternak (Kotoran Sapi) Dan Limbah Pasar (Sampah Sayur) Sebagai Energi Alternatif Carela, Amelia
KINETIKA Vol 1, No 1 (2013): TEKNIK ENERGI 01012013
Publisher : Teknik Kimia Politeknik Negeri Sriwijaya

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Abstract

Using for energy makes reserves running low, for it to need alternative renewable energy, saving energy and enviromentally friendly, is using of biogas. Biogas is a gaseous fuel produced from fermentation of organic materials with the help of anaerobic bacteria that can be used as an alternative energy. Manufacture of biogas reactors is done to support biogas fermentation with raw material mixture of cow dung and vegetable waste in ratio 7 : 3. Biogas production is done by varying volume of EM4 as activator 43 ml, 48 ml and 53 ml. Fermentation biogas done until 20 days. Result of biogas is analyzed to know volume of biogas from variation of EM4. From calculation, the highest volume biogas that add EM4 53 ml is 16,68 L. After getting volume the highest calorific value is 13.895 kJ/kg. Calorific value is not suitable for combustion, because compotition of CH4 content 22,97 % and still under standart of biogas.  
PALM OIL INDUSTRY WASTE WATER TREATMENT WITH COAGULATION METHOD, FENTON AND ADSORPTION Jauhari, Taufiq; Trisnaliani, Lety; Purnamasari, Indah
KINETIKA Vol 4, No 2 (2013): KINETIKA 01072013
Publisher : Teknik Kimia Politeknik Negeri Sriwijaya

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Abstract

Crude palm oil waste water is waste water that resulted from the palm oil industry. If crude palm oil waste water is released to environment, so it can decrease enviromentset quality  because it contains pollutant organic compound. In this research waste water crude palm oil processed using alum as coagulant with dosage 5000 ppm. This step process was continued by using the concentration fenton Fe2SO47H2O 0.004 M and concentration H2O2 0.32 M. In the final process waste water was treated  by adsorpstion active carbon columb of 30 cm, 40 cm and 50 cm and flow rate 80 mL/minute, 110 mL/minute and 140 mL/minute. In flow rate of  80 mL/minute and height activated carbon columb 50 cm the BOD, COD and TSS reduction increased until 70.10 %, 59.37 % and 85.69 % respectively.
ANALISA PERBANDINGAN ANTARA TEMPERATUR DAN TEKANAN TERHADAP KANDUNGAN AIR YANG HILANG DI STRIPPER Shahab, Aliyah
KINETIKA Vol 8, No 2 (2017): KINETIKA 01072017
Publisher : Teknik Kimia Politeknik Negeri Sriwijaya

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Abstract

Stripper is a process of separation between two mixed liquid substances by using a gas phase substance as a separator. In this case glycerin and water are used as mixed substances and steam is used as a separator in order to remove the moisture present in glycerine. In the separation process used variables such as temperature and pressure as a comparison, with the aim of knowing at the temperature and pressure of how much moisture content is lost. The results obtained from this study is that if the temperature and pressure are higher then the moisture content will be more and more, ie at a temperature of 140oC and a pressure of 45 psi moisture content lost as much as 50 ml. It can be concluded that temperature and pressure are very influential in removing moisture content in glycerin, because at high temperature and pressure it will get better steam so that separation in column stripper can occur maximally.