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TALENTA Publisher Universitas Sumatera Utara cq.Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Faculty of Pharmacy Univesitas Sumatera Utara Jalan Tri Dharma No. 5, Pintu 4, Kampus USU Padang Bulan Medan 20155, Sumatera Utara - Indonesia
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Sumatera utara
INDONESIA
Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
ISSN : 26156199     EISSN : 26203731     DOI : https://doi.org/10.32734/idjpcr.v1i1.203
Core Subject : Health, Science,
Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research (IDJPCR) is a-peer-reviewed publication of original research works. The mission of the journal is to offer a medium to exchange ideas and information about the advancement of knowledge and research in disciplines of pharmaceutical technology, pharmacology, clinical pharmacy, medical sciences, biological pharmacy and pharmaceutical chemistry. The journal also receives systematic reviews, meta-analysis and review article on new issues in pharmaceutical and clinical sciences. Submission to this journal implies that the manuscript has not been published or under consideration to be published in another journal. At the initial stage, this journal will be published online twice a year.
Articles 33 Documents
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF TROPONIN AND CK-MB IN ASSOCIATION WITH Q-WAVE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION Harahap, Urip; Margata, Linda
Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol 1 No 1 (2018): Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
Publisher : Talenta Publisher

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (746.21 KB) | DOI: 10.32734/idjpcr.v1i1.199

Abstract

Abstract. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the global main cause of morbidity and mortality. AMI describes the process of cell death due to prolonged ischemia identified by the appearance of pathological Q-wave in electrocardiogram (ECG). Myocardial cell death does not occur directly after the onset of myocardial ischemia, however, it occurs more than 6 hours after the onset. Thus, certain cardiac markers, such as cardiac troponin and creatinine kinase-MB (CK-MB) which formed in myocardial cell damage, play a vital role in diagnosing AMI. Keywords: Cardiac Biomarker, CK-MB, Diagnosis, Q-wave Myocardial Infarction, Troponin
TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF NUT GRASS (CYPERUS ROTUNDUS L.) EXTRACT Masfria; Metri Permata, Yade
Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol 1 No 1 (2018): Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
Publisher : Talenta Publisher

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (864.021 KB) | DOI: 10.32734/idjpcr.v1i1.202

Abstract

Abstract. The objectives of this research was to study the macroscopic, the microscopic and phytochemicals characterization of raw materials, total polyphenol content and the antibacterial activity of nut grass extracts (Cyperus rotundus L.) against Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aeroginosa.  The macroscopic and the microscopic characterization of raw materials were done with the determination of the water contents, the water soluble contents, the ethanol soluble contents, total ash and acid soluble ash. The extract was prepared by percolation using n-hexane, ethanol, and ethyl acetate as solvents. Phytochemical screening was done on the raw materials as well as n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol extracts. Total phenol contents were tested with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent method. The antibacterial activity test was done by measuring the diameter of the inhibition zones using the diffusion agar method.  The results showed that raw material retrieved 7.33% water content, 21.85% water soluble contents, 7.9% ethanol soluble contents, 1.53% total ash, and 0.67% total insoluble-acid ash. The phytochemical study showed that the nut grass contains various secondary metabolites including flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, anthraquinone glycosides, and steroid/triterpenoids. The total polyphenol contents of ethanol extracts were expressed as catechin equivalents 1.1616 mg/g extract.  All of the nut grass extract showed antibacterial activity. Ethyl acetate extract of nut grass indicated the highest antibacterial activity against Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhimurium, and Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Ethanol extract was only effective against Staphylococcus epidermidis.   Keywords: Antibacterial Activity, Bacteria, Cyperus Rotundus L Extracts, Phenolic
CHARACTERISTICS, ANTIHYPERGLYCEMICS UTILIZATION, AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS ADMITTED TO A PRIMARY HEALTH CENTER Nasution, Azizah; Simbolon, Rany; Tanjung, Hari Ronaldo
Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol 1 No 1 (2018): Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
Publisher : Talenta Publisher

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (910.839 KB) | DOI: 10.32734/idjpcr.v1i1.203

Abstract

Abstract. This study aimed to assess the characteristics, utilization of antihyperglycemic drugs, and to analyze the quality of life (QOL) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. This two-month prospective descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken by distributing the European Quality of Life - 5 Dimensions 3 Level (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire to the patients with T2DM  (n=50) admitted to Helvetia primary health center Medan to assessed their QOL. The patients? characteristics and the utilization of antihyperglycemic drugs were assessed from the patients? medical records using a self-designed questionnaire. The inclusion criteria were T2DM patients with age of 18 years or older,  had no mental disorders,  and agreed to sign the informed consent. The patients? characteristics, their QOL, utilization of antihyperglycemic drugs, and association among their characteristics and QOL were analyzed using descriptive and Chi-Square tests. All analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, version 19, Chicago, IL, USA) (p value <0.05 was considered significant). It was found that the mean age of the T2DM patients was 59.70 ± 10.44 (years). Most (66%) of them were females. Majority (80%) of the patients graduated from primary to senior high schools.  Nearly half (44%) of the patients was provided glibenclamide. The mean QOL of the patients was 0.79 ± 0.14. There was no significant association between the patients? QOL and their characteristics (p values >0.05). This study proved that most of the T2DM patients were females. Glibenclamide was the most frequently prescribed drug for the patients. The QOL of the patients was 79% of full health. Keyword: Antihyperglycemic Drugs , EQ-5D, QOL, T2DM
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF LIQUID SOAP CONTAINING TURMERIC (CURCUMA DOMESTICA VAL.) AND LEMONGRASS (CYMBOPOGON NARDUS L.) LEAF JUICE Nazliniwaty; Erly Sitompul
Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol 1 No 1 (2018): Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
Publisher : Talenta Publisher

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (772.619 KB) | DOI: 10.32734/idjpcr.v1i1.204

Abstract

Abstract. The purpose of this study was to formulate an antimicrobial liquid soap containing 25% turmeric and lemongrass leaf juice. Lemongrass leaf juice and turmeric juice 25%  were formulated into a liquid soap. Stability, pH and viscosity of the liquid soap were evaluated. For stability tests, the preparation was stored for 3 months at room temperaure. The pH test was measured by Hanna pH meter. The viscosity test,was measured by Brookfield viscometer.The antimicrobial activity of the liquid soap was measured by disc diffusion method using bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermis, Eschericia coli, Microsporum gypseum and Candida albicans. Physical properties of the formulated liquid soap including pH, viscosity, and stability showed that it was stable for 3 months. The results of antimicrobial test of the liquid soap containing turmeric and lemongrass leaf juice showed that the inhibition diameter against Staphylococcus epidermis, Eschericia coli, Microsporum gypseum and Candida albicans were 22.89, 27.05, 24.30, and 33.05 mm, respectively, while the liquid soap without the juice were 20.76, 19.50, 20.50 and 21.46 mm, respectively. The soap was effective in inhibiting the growth of microbes. Combination of turmeric and lemongrass leaf juice increased the inhibitory zone diameter of the liquid soap for microbe.  Keywords: Antimicrobial Agent, Lemongrass Leaf, Liquid Soap, Turmeric Leaf.
STUDY ON ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ANNONASQUAMOSA LEAVES IN MICE (MUSMUSCULUS) Khairunnisa; Dita Utami, Andini; Marianne
Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol 1 No 1 (2018): Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
Publisher : Talenta Publisher

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1025.288 KB) | DOI: 10.32734/idjpcr.v1i1.205

Abstract

Abstract. The aims of this study were to determine the potential for acute oral toxicity of ethanolic extract of A.squamosa leaves with LD50 and the histopathological changes in liver and kidney of mice.This research used experimental method as per fixed dose method. The number of animals used in this research were 20 female mice. The study was divided into 2 steps, there were sighting and main studies. The control group was given Na-CMC 0.5%, the treatment groups were given ethanolic extract of A.squamosa leaves with doses of 5, 50, 300,  2,000 and 5,000 mg/kg bw. The results showed that the ethanolic extract of A.squamosa leaves with doses of 2,000 and 5,000 mg/kg bw did not show any toxicity signs. At a dose of 5,000 mg/kg bw caused hydropic degeneration, necrosis hepatocyte, glomerular atrophy, and tubular dilatation.  There was no mortality was observed.It was estimated that LD50 of ethanolic extract of A.squamosa leaves was higher than 5,000 mg/kg bw and the extract were practically non-toxic. Keywords: Acute Toxicity,  Annona squamosa, Ethanolic Extract
FORMULATION OF ANTIACNE CREAM DOSAGE FORM CONTAINING MANGOSTEEN (GARCINIA MANGOSTANA L.) PERICARP ETHANOLIC EXTRACT Supomo; Apriliana, Anita; Purnawati, Titin; Risqi, Ainur
Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol 1 No 1 (2018): Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
Publisher : Talenta Publisher

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (860.169 KB) | DOI: 10.32734/idjpcr.v1i1.207

Abstract

Abstract. The aim of this study was to formulate ethanolic extract of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) pericarp (EEMP) in the antiacne cream dosage form. The formulae were made with 3 varied concentrations of 0.5%, 1.5% and 4.5%. The tests carried out in this study were  organoleptic cream preparations (odor, color, texture), homogeneity, pH, determination of the type of cream, spreadability, and the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis. The results of physical property evaluations showed that the EEMP indicated the pH value of 6, the spredability of the cream increased along with the increasing length of storage time. Duncan Test on the measurement of diameter dispersibility based on storage time showed that there were significant differences between the spreadability of the cream B and C. The cream produced was easy to wash indicating oil in water (o/w) type. The results of antibacterial activity test applying agar diffusion method using Mueller Hinton medium Agar (MHA) indicated that the inhibition zones of formulae II and III were 5.2 and 6 mm, respectively. Whereas, the formula I as well as the negative control showed no inhibition zones. It can be concluded that the EEMP can be formulated as an antiacne cream. The best cream formula was the formula II with the results of physical properties test were quite stable and able to produce inhibition zone against Staphylococcus epidermidis.   Keywords: Garcinia mangostana, cream, antiacne, antibacterial, Staphylococcus epidermidis.
THE EFFECT OF BOILING TIME AND THE TYPE OF UTENSIL USED ON THE NITRITE AND NITRATE CONTENTS IN CARROTS (DAUCUS CAROTA L.) Silalahi, Jansen; Aritonang, Shena Keshia; Muchlisyam
Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol 1 No 1 (2018): Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
Publisher : Talenta Publisher

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (973.506 KB) | DOI: 10.32734/idjpcr.v1i1.208

Abstract

Abstract.  The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of boiling time using utensils made of different metal component on thenitrate and nitrite contentsin carrots. The carrots were obtained from Jaranguda Village, Karo Regency, North Sumatra. The utensil types used for boiling were made of stainless steel, what so called periuk and aluminum and boiling time were 5 minutes, 10 minutes and 15 minutes.The determination of nitrite was done by visible spectrophotometer using sulfanilic acid and N-(1-naphthyl) ethylenediamine dihydrochloride reagentsand absorbance was measured at a wavelength of 540 nm. The determinationof nitrate wascarried out by reducing the nitrate into nitrite using Zinc powder and diluted HCl then measured as nitrite. The nitritelevel was then convertedinto nitrate. The result showed that the utensil types and boiling time affected the levels of nitrate and nitrite in carrots. The nitrate and nitrite levels in fresh carrots was 32.14 mg/kg and 24.78 mg/kg respectively. After boiling for 5 minutes, the nitrate and nitrite levels decreased significantly. Further boiling of boiled carrots, the nitrite levelincreased in the aluminum utensil from 11.00 mg/kg to 20.15 mg/kg (83 %); in periuk from 9.18 mg/kg to 16.95 mg/kg (78%) andin stainless steelfrom 8.21 mg/kg to 11.75 mg/kg (43%). While the nitrate level decreased in aluminumutensil from 27.14 mg/kg to 21.08 mg/kg (22%); stainless steel from 16.40 mg/kg to 13.25 mg/kg (19%) and periuk from 20.30 mg/kg to 16.51 mg/kg (18%).  The results of this study indicated that the nitrite level increased, while nitrate level decreased with boiling time.The effect of utensil type used on boiling increased nitrite but decreased nitrate level in carrotsand these effects were found that the mostinfluential treatmentwas using utensil made of aluminum. Keyword: Carrot, Boiling Time, Nitrate, Nitrit, Utensil Type
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES AND MECHANISM OF ACTION OF PETIVERIA ALLIACEA STEM EXTRACT Mulyani, Yani; Ika Kurnia Sukmawati; Jajang Jafar Sodik
Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol 1 No 1 (2018): Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
Publisher : Talenta Publisher

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1106.564 KB) | DOI: 10.32734/idjpcr.v1i1.209

Abstract

Abstract. This research aimed to determine the antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract of Petiveria alliacea stem (EEPS) against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by perforation and broth micro dilution methods. Study on the mechanism of action of EEPS was conducted by molecular docking and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results showed that EEPS had an inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans with MIC values of 256, 128, 256, 512 µg/ml, consecutively. These values are included in to the medium category. Through the process of molecular docking, the best interaction was observed between S-benzyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide with penicillin-binding protein receptor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa characterized by free energy change (?G) of 4.32 kcal/mol, and the Ki value of 682.16 ?M. Four folds of MIC of the EEPS caused changes in the morphology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. EEPS possessed antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans.   Keywords: Antimicrobial Activity, Molecular Docking, Petiveria alliacea, SEM.
DETERMINATION OF DEXAMETHASONE IN UNREGISTERED HERBAL WEIGHT GAIN USING HPTLC-DENSITOMETRY Asra, Ridho; Zulharmita; Yuliatim, Nopitri
Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol 1 No 2 (2018): Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
Publisher : Talenta Publisher

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (829.05 KB) | DOI: 10.32734/idjpcr.v1i2.331

Abstract

A method was described for the simultaneous determination of dexamethasone in herbal weight gain. Three unregistered herbal weight gains (sample A, B, and C) were analyzed by using HPTLC-densitometry method. Samples were extracted as bases into methanol, separated by HPTLC silica gel 60 F254plate using chloroform: methanol (9:1) as mobile phase followed by densitometry measurement of its spot. The result showed that the detector response was linear for concentrations between 100-500 mg/mL (r =0.998). The limits of detection and quantitation were 9.19 mg/mL and 30.64 mg/mL, respectively. Dexamethasone contents from samples were analyzed. The result showed that two samples (sample A and B) were positively containing dexamethasone and the other one showed a negative result. The average contents of dexamethasone from both samples were 0.23% and 0.25%, respectively.
PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DEXTRIN IN XANTHOSOMA SAGITTIFOLIUM (L.) SCHOTT STARCH WITH ACID CATALYST AND ENZYMATIC METHODS Sumaiyah; Wiliantari, Selvia; Karsono
Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol 1 No 2 (2018): Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
Publisher : Talenta Publisher

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (759.853 KB) | DOI: 10.32734/idjpcr.v1i2.346

Abstract

Abstract. Taro produces carbohydrate. It has the potential as a substitute material for wheat and rice or as diversification into food and raw materials for pharmaceutical industrial. The aim of this study is to prepare and characterize dextrin in Xanthosoma sagittifolium starch with acid catalyst and enzymatic methods. Xanthosoma sagittifolium was mashed and decanted with distilled water. Dextrin was made by acid catalyst method using HCl 1 N and enzymatic method using ?-amylase enzyme. Dextrin was characterized and tested according to the Indonesian National Standard (SNI) 01-2593-1992. The results showed that the yield from acid catalyst and enzymatic methods are 41.73 % and 67.10 %, respectively. The color test showed that dextrin from acid catalyst method is yellowish whereas the enzymatic method gives white dextrin. The qualitative test with lugol solution gives brownish purple dextrin. The characteristic of 80 mesh fineness for dextrin fabricated by acid and enzymatic methods are 94.7 % ± 0.06 and 93.96 % ± 0.02 respectively. Dextrin obtained from acid catalyst has higher water content (8.79 % ± 0.15) than dextrin from enzymatic methods (7.62 % ± 0.23) as well as dextrin from acid catalyst has higher the ash content (0.45 % ± 0.02) than dextrin from enzymatic method (0.42 % ± 0.04). Dextrin made from enzymatic method has higher solubility in cold water (63.09 % + 0.1) than dextrin from acid catalyst method (57.47 % ± 0.25). Dextrose equivalent for dextrin produced is 13.65 ± 0.36 and 15.31 ± 0.46 for acid catalyst and enzymatic methods. Melting points for dextrin obtained from acid catalyst and enzymatic methods are 185 oC ± 0.57 and 182 cC ± 0.57 respectively. Acidity degree of dextrin fabricated from acid catalyst and enzymatic methods are 2.86 ± 0.23 and 4.39 ± 0.4. The research shows that the characterization of dextrin by acid catalyst and enzymatic methods meet the quality requirements for Indonesia National Standard (SNI) 01-2593-1992.   Key words: Taro, dextrin, acid catalyst method, enzymatic method

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