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Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan
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Articles 210 Documents
Pembuatan Papan Komposit dari Plastik Daur Ulang dan Serbuk Kayu serta Jerami Sebagai Filler Mulana, Farid; Hisbullah, Hisbullah; Iskandar, Iskandar
Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan Vol 8, No 1 (2011): Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Department, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (185.313 KB)

Abstract

Production of composites was done by mixing the filler and matrix. The common matrix used to produce composite is plastic ore with types of poly propylene, poly ethylene and others. To know the characteristics of composite boards made from recycled plastic type poly ethylene so this research was conducted. This research aims to create a composite board made of solid waste sawdust and straw as a filler and recycled plastics as the matrix and to find out more details of the influence of variable solid waste types and ratio of solid waste weight and plastic toward the quality of the composite board product. Composite board manufacturing process was carried out by hot press method at a temperature of 145 oC for 20 minutes. The composite board products are tested on value of hardness, tensile strength, and thermal value. The results showed that the use of sawdust as a filler resulted the composite hardness value that is better (R79,5) compared with straw (R67) at a ratio of filler composition: matrix of 80:20 respectively. The use of sawdust also gives the value of tensile strength of 6.86 MPa that is better than the using a straw that valued of 3.62 MPa at composition ratio of filler: to matrix (60:40). Largest amount of heat needed to melt the composite boards are 31.19 J/g and 14.02 J/g at composition ratio sawdust: recycled plastics of 80:20 and at composition ratio straw: recycled plastics of 80:20, respectively. Visually composite board with a composition of sawdust:plastic HDPE 50:50 looks better with bright colors and shiny.Keywords: Composite, Solid waste, Plastic, Matrix, Filler,  Poly ethylene
Effectiveness of Durian Peel Extract as A Natural Anti-Bacterial Agent Arlofa, Nina; Ismiyati, Ismiyati; Kosasih, Muhammad; Fitriyah, Nurul H.
Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan Vol 14, No 2 (2019): Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan (December, 2019)
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Department, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.23955/rkl.v14i2.14275

Abstract

Durian (durio zibertinus) is a native tropical fruit from Southeast Asia, especially Indonesia. Durian peel is the highest composition of durian fruit (60-75%), and is still considered as waste that causes environmental problems. This study aimed to analyze the content of secondary metabolites extract, to analyze the anti-bacterial activity of durian peel extract against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, and to calculate the effectiveness of durian skin durian peel extract as a natural anti-bacterial ingredient in hand sanitizer products by using the paper disc method. Durian peel was extracted with ethanol to obtain extract solution which was then separated from the solvent and applied as an ingredient for hand sanitizer. The Analysis results showed that durian peel extract contains triterpenoids, alkaloids, and saponins, which are phytochemical compounds that anti-bacterial function. Durian peel extract at concentration of 1% wt. inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli, Salmonella thyposa and Sthapylococcus aureus with a clear zone diameters of 7.4 mm, 8.2 mm and 8.6 mm, respectively. In anti-septic tests, hand sanitizer samples containing durian peel extract showed that the interaction between the concentration of durian peel extract and the sampling duration simultaneously gave a significant effect in reducing the number of microorganism colonies. 
Effectiveness of the Vertical Gas Ventilation Pipes for Promoting Waste Stabilization in Post-Closure Phase Tojo, Yasumasa; Kishizawa, Natsuki; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Matsuo, Takayuki
Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan Vol 10, No 3 (2015): Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Department, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (993.963 KB) | DOI: 10.23955/rkl.v10i3.3065

Abstract

To make inside of the municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill aerobic as much as possible is thought to be preferable for promoting waste stabilization, reducing pollutant's load in leachate, minimizing greenhouse gas emission and shortening post-closure-care period. In Japan, installation of semi-aerobic landfill structure has widely spread in order to promote waste stabilization in MSW landfill from 1980s. In semi-aerobic landfill structure, outlet of main leachate collection pipe is opened to atmosphere. Heat generated by aerobic degradation of waste causes natural convection and natural aeration arises from the outlet of leachate collection pipe to the gas vents. It is so-called stack effect. This air flow is thought to be effective for purifying leachate flowing through drainage layer and leachate collection pipes. And it is also thought to be contributing to expanding aerobic region in waste layer in landfill. Recently, measures attempting the promotion of waste stabilization are taken at several landfills at where stabilization of waste delays, in which many vertical gas vents are newly installed and close structure to semi-aerobic landfill is created. However, in many cases, these gas vents are not connected to leachate collection pipes. Many vertical gas vents are just installed without scientific proof regarding whether they can contribute for waste stabilization. In this study, how such installation of gas vents is effective for waste stabilization and aerobization of waste layer was discussed by numerical analysis. In numerical analysis, heat transfer, gas movement by pressure, gas diffusion, biological degradation of organic matter, and heat generation by biodegradation were taken into account. Simulations were carried out by using the general purpose simulator of finite element method. Three types of landfill structure were assumed. As the results, the following information were obtained. In dig-down type landfill, installation of gas vents has no effect for changing air flow. On the other hand, in pile-up type landfill, installation of vertical gas vents can accelerate air invasion and significantly promote waste stabilization, if it has high permeable horizontal layer.
Analisis Logam Berat Pb dan Cd dalam Sampel Ikan dan Kerang secara Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom Supriatno, Supriatno; Lelifajri, Lelifajri
Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan Vol 7, No 1 (2009): Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Department, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (128.953 KB)

Abstract

The analysis of heavy metals Pb and Cd concentrations in fish and oyster have been carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) method. The wet digestion method was used for preparation sample prior to AAS detection. Sample was collected from three different location rivers at Lamnyong, Pantee Pirak and Lumbago. The result showed that the Pb and Cd concentration in fish and oyster at difference location were obtained not difference significantly. Pb and Cd contents in fish and oyster were found below lethal concentration. The AAS instrument was still valid to use as the instrument which is obtained of accuration of 0.65% and precise of 0,019 ppm still lower than threshold value of 1% and 0.04 ppm.Keywords: atomic absorbance spektrophootometry, fish, kerang, heavy metal
Anti-biofoulan Alami Moringa oleifera Sebagai Bahan Pengisi Membran Mixed Matrix Selulosa Asetat untuk Klarifikasi Jus Buah Wibisono, Yusuf; Faradilla, Ashried; Utoro, Panggulu Ahmad; Sukoyo, Agung; Izza, Ni'matul; Dewi, Shinta Rosalia
Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan Vol 13, No 2 (2018): Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan (December, 2018)
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Department, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.23955/rkl.v13i2.11053

Abstract

Teknologi membran banyak digunakan dalam pemisahan padatan terlarut dalam cairan, termasuk dalam pengolahan pangan misalnya klarifikasi jus buah. Namun salah satu faktor penghambat utama penggunaan membran adalah terjadinya fouling yang berpotensi menurunkan kualitas produk. Dalam proses klarifikasi jus buah, membran berpotensi mengalami fouling karena material biologis. Antibiofoulan alami seperti biji buah kelor Moringa oleifera berpotensi untuk digunakan sebagai agen pencegah biofouling pada proses membran karena mengandung fenol. Pada penelitian ini diketahui kandungan total fenol ekstrak bji kelor sebesar 123.61 mg/g ekstrak. Ekstrak ditambahkan sebagai bahan pengisi dengan konsentrasi yang berbeda pada larutan cetak membran selulosa asetat dengan pelarut dimetil formamida yang berfungsi sebagai matrix. Morfologi membran mixed matrix yang dihasilkan berupa pori-pori yang berbentuk jari dan masuk dalam kategori membran mikrofiltrasi. Kinerja membran diuji kekuatan mekaniknya, nilai fluks, dan sifat antibakteri menggunakan E-coli. Penambahan ekstrak biji kelor pada mampu memberikan dua keuntungan, yaitu menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri sebesar 39.7% dan menurunkan permeabilitas dari 1765.25 L/m2.jam.bar menjadi 1235.5231 L/m2.jam.bar yang berpotensi meningkatkan tingkat rejeksi membran mikrofiltrasi yang dihasilkan.
Preparasi Bentonit Terpilar Alumina dari Bentonit Alam dan Pemanfaatannya sebagai Katalis pada Reaksi Dehidrasi Etanol, 1-Propanol serta 2-Propanol Lubis, Surya
Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan Vol 6, No 2 (2007): Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Department, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (144.141 KB)

Abstract

Penelitian tentang modifikasi bentonit dari Kuala Dewa, Aceh Utara menjadi bentonit terpilar alumina dan uji aktivitasnya pada reaksi dehidrasi etanol, 1-propanol dan 2-propanol telah dilakukan. Bentonit alam (Ca-bentonit) dimodifikasi melalui proses pertukaran kation menjadi Na-bentonit dan H-bentonit, kemudian dipilarisasi menggunakan AlCl3 dan NaOH menghasilkan bentonit terpilar alumina. Bentonit terpilar alumina yang diperoleh mempunyai luas permukaan spesifik (72,42 m2/gram) yang lebih besar dibanding dengan bentonit tidak terpilar. Uji aktivitas katalitis bentonit terpilar alumina pada reaksi dehidrasi etanol, 1-propanol dan 2-propanol dilakukan pada suhu 200°C - 400°C. Suhu optimum reaksi dehidrasi etanol, 1-propanol dan 2-propanol menggunakan katalis bentonit terpilar alumina berturutturut adalah 250, 400 dan 200°C dengan konsentrasi dietil eter 25,44; 2,31 dan 3,29%. Aktivitas katalis bentonit terpilar alumina pada reaksi dehidrasi alkohol sesuai dengan urutan etanol lebih besar dari 2-propanol lebih besar dari 1-propanol.Kata kunci: bentonit terpilar alumina, dehidrasi, etanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol
Aktivitas Antioksidan Ekstrak Etanol Daun Ubi Jalar Ungu (Ipomea batatas L.) Hasil Budidaya Daerah Saree Aceh Besar Sulastri, Sulastri; Erlidawati, Erlidawati; Syahrial, Syahrial; Nazar, Muhammad; Andayani, Thursina
Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan Vol 9, No 3 (2013): Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Department, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (277.988 KB) | DOI: 10.23955/rkl.v9i3.781

Abstract

This research was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of purple sweet potato leaves cultivated in Saree, Aceh Besar. The study was conducted in two stages. The first stage included sampel preparation, phytochemical test, λ max determination, testing of antioxidant activity by reducing power method, and TLC analysis. In stage 2 purification using column chromatography, phytochemical test, and antioxidant activity test were performed. The sample was dissolved by using 70% ethanol and 1.5 N HCl with a ratio of 85:15 (v/v). Phytochemical test results showed that the sample consisted of not only flavonoids but also tannins. The Rf value for both sample and standard are respectively 0.55 and 0.61 with absorbance value of 0.826 and 0.845. The sample was then purified using column chromatography and 25 fractions were grouped based on the color intensity abbreviated as FA, FB and FC. Photochemical test was then conducted to examine the purity of obtained fraction and FB was found to be relatively purer than other fractions. Reducing power test of FB with variation of weight 10 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg, 40 mg, and 50 mg gave the percentage inhibition 64.1, 6.7, 67.9, 70.3 and 73.6, respectively, while the percentage value of α- tocopherol at simmilar weight variation are 32.1, 36.7, 43.5 and 50.2%. From the result obtained, it can be concluded that the antioxidant activity of ethanol extract of thick purple sweet potato leaves is higher than α-tocopherol.Keywords: antioxidant activity, purple sweet potato leaves, reducing power
Simulasi Pengendali Proporsional Integral pada Proses Penguapan Agustriyanto, Rudy
Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan Vol 12, No 2 (2017): Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Department, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (708.665 KB) | DOI: 10.23955/rkl.v12i2.8339

Abstract

Makalah ini mempresentasikan metode penyaringan signal input gradien sehingga dapat meningkatkan kinerja sistem pengendalian bila terjadi gangguan (noise) pada pembacaan sensor. Sistem pengendalian yang dipelajari adalah sistem pengendalian unit penguapan. Cao (2004) telah mempublikasikan suatu strategi pengendalian desentralisasi pada unit operasi penguapan. Keunikan strategi yang diajukan Cao terletak pada perlunya untuk mengendalikan suatu variabel baru yang merupakan fungsi dari data yang berasal dari sensor-sensor yang tersedia. Kondisi optimal pada sistem pengendalian yang ditinjau perlu dijabarkan terlebih dahulu secara matematis dan dinyatakan sebagai gradien yang merupakan fungsi dari berbagai variabel proses. Gradien tersebut kemudian dikendalikan dengan tujuan lebih lanjut untuk mengendalikan variabel sebenarnya. Keuntungan penerapan saringan signal input gradien pada studi ini dinyatakan dalam reduksi biaya operasi yang dibandingkan dengan pengendalian gradien tanpa penyaringan.
Preparasi dan karakterisasi fotokatalis NaTaO3 didoping ion lantanum (La/NaTaO3) dengan metode sol-gel Husin, Husni
Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan Vol 8, No 2 (2011): Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Department, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (396.815 KB)

Abstract

Crystalline sodium tantalate doped with La3+ ions (La/NaTaO3) has been successfully synthesized by sol-gel technique. The photocatalysts have been prepared by mixing of TaCl5, NaOH, and La(NO3)3.2H2O in the aqueous solution of H2O2. The resulting materials are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to provide useful information about crystallinity and morphology. All samples are exactly indexed as the pure NaTaO3 orthorhombic structure with the space group Pcmn. The XRD spectra displayed a single-phase NaTaO3 structure without any impurity phase, suggesting that lanthanum is uniformly incorporated into the NaTaO3 lattice. TEM images indicates that the particle sizes of the La-doped NaTaO3 powders are approximately 30-80 nm, while the particle sizes of the non-doped NaTaO3 are around 80-250 nm. Doping lanthanum in the NaTaO3 is able to prevent agglomeration, result in particle size, and better crystallinity. The La/NaTaO3 crystal structures reveal that a certain amount of lattice distortion due to the La3+ ions occupying the Na+ sites results in the increase of crystallite size. Powder formation mechanisms for both non-doped NaTaO3 and La-doped NaTaO3 are proposed based on the experimental results.Keywords: La-doped sodium tantalum oxide, photocatalyst, sol-gel, perovskite, orthorhombic
Sintesis Selulosa Asetat dari Limbah Batang Ubi Kayu Lismeri, Lia; Zari, Poppy Meutia; Novarani, Tika; Darni, Yuli
Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan Vol 11, No 2 (2016): Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Department, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.23955/rkl.v11i2.5407

Abstract

Salah satu hasil pertanian terbesar di Indonesia adalah tanaman ubi kayu. Selama ini batang ubi kayu tersedia dalam jumlah yang cukup besar namun belum dimanfaatkan secara optimal. Batang ubi kayu memiliki kandungan lignoselulosa yaitu selulosa 39,29%, hemiselulosa 24,34%, dan lignin 13,42%. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memanfaatkan limbah batang ubi kayu yang akan dijadikan sebagai bahan baku pembuatan selulosa asetat. Proses pembuatan selulosa asetat dilakukan dalam 2 tahap yaitu tahap isolasi selulosa (proses pretreatment, delignifikasi, dan bleaching) dan tahap sintesis selulosa asetat. Pelarut yang digunakan pada proses pretreatment yaitu asam fosfat, asam asetat, dan asam klorida. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa larutan asam fosfat 3% menghasilkan densitas terkecil yaitu 0,833 g/mL yang menunjukan bahwa telah terjadinya swelling. Pada proses delignifikasi digunakan variasi waktu dan rasio bahan terhadap pelarut. Kadar selulosa terbesar yang diperoleh yaitu 56,92% dengan waktu pemasakan 2 jam dan rasio sampel terhadap pelarut 1:12 (v/v). Identifikasi gugus fungsi FTIR terhadap selulosa asetat menunjukkan adanya serapan gugus karbonil (C=O) dan gugus ester (C-O), masing-masing terlihat pada bilangan gelombang 1738,47 cm-1 dan 1224,39 cm-1. Kadar asetil selulosa asetat yang dihasilkan sebesar 41,01% dan termasuk jenis selulosa diasetat yang dapat dimanfaatkan lebih lanjut dalam pembuatan membran, film topografi, dan benang.

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