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BIOTROPIA - The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Biology
ISSN : 02156334     EISSN : 1907770X     DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.11598/btb
BIOTROPIA, The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Biology, is a scientific publication of the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization (SEAMEO) – Southeast Asian Regional Center for Tropical Biology (BIOTROP). It publishes articles in the broad areas of tropical ecosystems and environmental impacts, biodiversity conservation and sustainable development and biotechnology.
Articles 322 Documents
INDUCTION OF SPAWNING IN THE TROPICAL WALKING CATFISH (Clarias batrachus) BY CONTROLLING WATER LEVEL AND TEMPERATURE JR., M. ZAIRIN; FURUKAWA, K.; AiDA, K.
BIOTROPIA - The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Biology No 16 (2001)
Publisher : SEAMEO BIOTROP

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (127.747 KB) | DOI: 10.11598/btb.2001.0.16.165

Abstract

This experiment was carried out to confirm  the role of water level  and water temperature in inducing the spawning of tropical walking catfish. Mature males and females reared under 23 - 25 °C, were paired and induced to spawn by controlling water level and water temperature. Decreasing water level and returning it to its original level resulted in a low spawning rate (less than 6.7 %) at 23 °C. Decreasing water  level with simultaneous increase in water temperature, followed  by returning the respective levels to their originals gave high spawning rates (41.7 — 50 %); whereas the same treatment but without any water temperature decreased when the water level was returned to the initial level, gave a low spawning rate (16.7 %). Increasing water level only, failed to induce spawning. A high spawning rate was obtained also when changes in water level were carried out under high temperature of 28 °C. No fish spawned in the absence of the environmental stimulation. From the results, it is confirmed that water level and temperature play important roles in inducing spawning of tropical walking catfish. Changes in water temperature probably increase the sensitivity of fish to the change in  water level. Prolonged  exposure to high  water temperature could  also improve the sensitivity of fish. Key words: Walking catfish / spawning / water level / water temperature
Biomass and Carbon Stock Estimation Inventory of Indonesian Bananas (Musa spp.) and Its Potential Role for Land Rehabilitation Danarto, Setyawan Agung; Hapsari, Lia
BIOTROPIA - The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Biology Vol 22, No 2 (2015)
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Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (392.824 KB) | DOI: 10.11598/btb.2015.22.2.376

Abstract

ABSTRACTBananas (Musa spp.) are widely cultivated in Indonesia. They are extensively grown in backyards, homegardens, intercropped with short term crops and also in agroforestry system. Potential role of bananas to absorb and store Carbon related to climate change mitigation is rarely studied. An inventory of biomass and C-stock estimation on banana accessions has been conducted in Musa germplasm plots - Purwodadi Botanic Garden, Pasuruan. 42individual banana accessions has been estimated its biomass and C-stock comprises of 5 wild types and 37 cultivars. Biomass estimated using non-destructive method ie. allometric equation for banana by measuring its mature stage pseudostem diameter at breast height (dbh).  C-stockwas estimated by crossing its biomass to averaged value of banana C-stock 0,46.The results showed that the biomass and C-stock estimation level were in positive correlations with its plants pseudostem dbH. The conclusions of these research that Kepok Bung cultivar has the highest level of estimated biomass and Carbon stock about 15, 02 kg/plant and 6, 92 kg C/plant and then cultivars with range averaged C-stock between 3,5 – 3,9 kg C/plant (higher level) are Tlekung, Baflo, and Cici. Musa balbisiana species contributes higher level of biomass and  C-stock estimation  than Musa acuminata species.Keywords: Banana, biomass, carbon stock (C-stock), estimation, Musa, non- destructive, Purwodadi Botanic Garden                
DETERMINING AN APPROPRIATE AGE FOR ESTIMATING SITE INDEX OF Acacia hybrid PLANTATIONS IN SOUTHEASTERN VIETNAM Nguyen, Chung Tan; Tran, Ngoan Thi; Nguyen, Them Van
BIOTROPIA - The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Biology Articles in Press
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Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (861.548 KB) | DOI: 10.11598/btb.0.0.0.1051

Abstract

This article introduces the research results of a site index classification for Acacia hybrid plantations in Dong Nai Province. The objectives of this study were to (i) determine a baseline age of Acacia hybrid plantations to establish their site indices and (ii) develop site index curves for Acacia hybrid plantations. Three standard plots were established for each age group of 1-10 years with 111 trees per plot; 108 trees were measured for the estimation of growth criteria. Three trees were used for tree truncation, and truncated trees did not count for the estimation of tree growth criteria. In this study, the site index (SI) for Acacia hybrid plantations was divided into three levels according to the total height of the dominant trees. The heights collected from 108 trees were used to build the functions of the SI, and three truncated trees were used to examine the possibilities of the functions of SI. Research results showed that the appropriate baseline age of Acacia hybrid plantations at Dong Nai Province is 8 years. The site indices of hybrid plantations were divided into three site levels of I, II, and III, corresponding to heights of 24, 20 and 16 m, respectively. To improve the effectiveness of Acacia hybrid plantation businesses, owners should focus on growing plantations at site index levels of I or II.
DISTRIBUTION AND DIVERSITY OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH GRASSES IN TEN STATES THROUGHOUT PENINSULAR MALAYSIA IZZATI, M.Z, NUR AIN; M.S., SITI NORDAHLIAWATE,; I, NOR AZLIZA,; B, SALLEH,
BIOTROPIA - The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Biology Vol 16, No 2 (2009)
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Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2019.202 KB) | DOI: 10.11598/btb.2009.16.2.57

Abstract

Fusarium  is one of   the  important genera associated with grasses as saprophytes, endophytes and  pathogens. A  study was  carried  out  on  distribution  and  diversity  of  Fusarium  species associated  with  two  groups  of   grasses  in  10  states  throughout  Peninsular  Malaysia  i.e. agricultural  grasses  (Oryza  sativa  and  Saccharum  officinarum)  and  non-agricultural  grasses (Axonopus compressus, Centhotheca lappacea, Chloris barbata, Crysopogon aciculatus, Cyanadon dactylon, Dactyloctenium  aegyptium, Digitaria  ciliaris,  Echinochloa  colona,  Eleusine  indica,  Eragrostis  amabilis, Eragrostis malayana, Eragrostis uniloides, Ischaemum magnum, Panicum brevifolium, Panicum millaneum, Panicum repens, Paspalum  commersonii, Paspalum  conjugatum, Paspalum orbiculare, Pennisetum purpureum, Sacciolepis  indica, Sporobolus diander and Sporobolus  indicus). A  total of  474  isolates were single-spored and  identified by morphological characteristics. F.  semitectum was  frequently  isolated (23.6%), followed by F. sacchari and F. fujikuroi with 15.4% and 14.6%, respectively. The other nine species were F. solani (10.3%), F. proliferatum (8.9%), F. oxysporum (7.4%), F. subglutinans (6.5%), F.  equiseti  (5.5%), F.  verticillioides  (3.4%), F.  compactum  (2.5%), F.  chlamydosporum  (1.1%) and F. longipes (0.8%). Based on the Shannon-Weiner Index, F. solani was the highest (H' = 2.62) isolated from grasses. Species of  Fusarium from O. sativa were widely diverse with 11 species, followed by non-agricultural grasses with nine species and S. officinarum with only six species. This  is  the  first  report on diversity of  Fusarium associated with grasses  in Malaysia.Key words: Oryza  sativa,  Saccharum  officinarum,  non-agricultural  grass,  Fusarium  species, diversity  and Gramineae
EFFECT OF LIGHT QUALITIES AND STORAGE PERIODS ON THE GERMINATION OF PENNISETUM POLYSTACHION SEEDS*) TJITROSEMITO, S
BIOTROPIA - The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Biology No 5 (1992)
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Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (305.613 KB) | DOI: 10.11598/btb.1992.0.5.199

Abstract

Seeds  of  the  yellowish  inflorescence  strain  of  Pennisetum polystachion,  collected  from  the  field  in Indonesia, were kept  in the dark  for 30 days,  then germinated  in 12-h  light and 24-h  light under various  light qualities, namely, white, black, blue, red and far-red. There was no effect of photo-period to seed germination. Percent of seed germination under white, red, far-red, blue and dark were 49, 43, 22, 11 and 2%, respectively. White and red light did not cause any difference to seed germination. Seeds kept in 12-h light alternating with 12-h dark and 24-h dark for 15 and 30 days were tested for germination. Results  showed  that  light  condition during  seed  storage did not  effect  seed germination.  Long storage period resulted in more seed germination. During seed germination test, effect of light played a great role on increasing seed germination.
Eimeria SPECIES COMPOSITION AND FACTORS INFLUENCING OOCYSTS SHEDDING IN DAIRY FARM, BANDUNG, INDONESIA Sufi, Isrok Malikus; Cahyaningsih, Umi; Sudarnika, Etih
BIOTROPIA - The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Biology Vol 24, No 2 (2017)
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Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (843.28 KB) | DOI: 10.11598/btb.2017.24.2.516

Abstract

Coccidiosis is one of the most widely distributed parasitic diseases of cattle throughout the world. Coccidiosis infection in ruminants was caused by Eimeria spp.  The objective of this study was to determine Eimeria species composition and various factors influencing Eimeria oocysts shedding in dairy farm.  This study was conducted with a cross-sectional study design in dairy farm in South Bandung District from July 2014 to January 2015. Samples were obtained from 400 dairy cattle (196 cattle at age < 6 months, 37 cattle at age 6 - 12 months and 167 cattle at age > 12 months). Fecal samples were collected, examined and counted for Eimeria species composition and numbers of oocysts per gram of feces (OPG) using McMaster technique. A questionnaire was completed for individual dairy cattle farmer to record information about cattle’s health and husbandry. The effect of cattle’s sex, age and type of pen flooring to OPG values were analyzed using Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The Kruskal-Wallis test was performed followed by Dunn test as a multiple comparison test. Ten species of Eimeria were identified in all infected cattle. Among the Eimeria identified species, Eimeria bovis was found to have the highest prevalence (42.5%), followed subsequently by Eimeria wyomingensis (39.1%), Eimeria bukidnonensis (32.4%), Eimeria pellita (26.3%), Eimeria auburnensis (19.6%), Eimeria zuernii (17.3%), Eimeria cylindrica (3.9%), Eimeria canadensis (3.9%), Eimeria brasiliensis (3.4%) and Eimeria alabamensis (1.1%). The numbers of oocysts shed was correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with cattle’s sex and age as well type of pen flooring which influenced the infection pressure. Younger calves aged less than 6 months shed the highest amount of Eimeria oocysts than older cattle. Many factors may cause the increasing number of OPG in fecal samples. Therefore, it is important to keep good sanitation and control of Eimeria among dairy cattle in the KPBS Pangalengan dairy farm.
THE PERFORMANCE OF SOYBEAN (C.V. AMERICANA) ESTABLISHED BY ZERO TILLAGE TECHNIQUE IN IMPERATA FIELD CONTROLLED BY HERBICIDES TJITROSEMITO, SOEKISMAN
BIOTROPIA - The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Biology No 2 (1989)
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Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (135.519 KB) | DOI: 10.11598/btb.1989.0.2.92

Abstract

A  field  experiment  was  conducted  to  investigate  the performance  of  soybean  (c.v.  Americana)  when established with zero tillage technique on Imperata dominated area. Four different techniques of alang-alang control  i.e.  imazapyr  (20  kg  ai/ha),  glyphosate  (25  kg  ai/ha),  glufosinate  (3.0  kg  ai/ha)  and  manual cultivation were arranged factorially with time of plantings i.e. 1,2 and 3 months after treatments. The  alang-alang  damages  varied  with  herbicides  and  times,  imazapyr  (20  kg  ai/ha) showed slow appearance of damage at 3 months after application it was only 69%, while that of glufosinate was already down to 48% due to regrowth. No phytotoxicity was recorded, but the yield was low.
CONTRASTING ARBOREAL AND TERRESTRIAL BRYOPHYTES COMMUNITIES OF THE MOUNT HALIMUN SALAK NATIONAL PARK, WEST JAVA ARIYANTI, NUNIK S.; SULISTIJORINI, SULISTIJORINI
BIOTROPIA - The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Biology Vol 18, No 2 (2011)
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Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (102.185 KB) | DOI: 10.11598/btb.2011.18.2.243

Abstract

Bryophyte communities were compared between arboreal (trunk bases) and terrestrialhabitats in primary forest Mount Halimun Salak National Park, West Java. The communitieswere analyzed based on species diversity, abundance, and biomass. A total of 150 bryophytesspecies were identified, including 67 species of mosses (Bryopsida) and 83 of liverworts(Hepaticopsida). Both bryophyte groups varied in diversity and abundance between arborealand terrestrial communities as well as among different elevations. Species diversity of arborealhabitats (116 species)was higher than that of terrestrial habitats (64 species). Moss speciesweremore abundant in terms of coverage in terrestrial habitats whereas liverworts species weremore abundant in arboreal habitats. Species richness in both terrestrial and arboreal habitatsdecreased towards higher elevation, whereas the abundance increased.
BENTHIC DIATOMS IN THE PING RIVER AND ITS TRIBUTARIES IN MAE TAENG DISTRICT, CHIANG MAI PROVINCE, THAILAND Leelahakriengkrai, Pongpan; Kunpradid, Tatporn
BIOTROPIA - The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Biology Vol 25, No 3 (2018)
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Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (5128.192 KB) | DOI: 10.11598/btb.2018.25.3.842

Abstract

Mae Teang District is home to many tributaries of the Ping River. Each tributary is associated with different geographical characteristics and uses. This study is the first report on benthic diatom diversity in the designated water bodies and the first comparison of benthic diatom distribution in the Ping River and its tributaries, including the Mae Hao and Mae Luang Streams in Mae Taeng District of Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. The benthic diatom distribution and physico-chemical properties were investigated in August and November 2015 at three locations in each water body. The highest abundance of benthic diatoms was found in the Ping River (143 species), followed by Mae Hao (132 species) and Mae Luang Streams (90 species). The most abundant species found in the Ping River were Planothidium lanceolatum, Nitzschia palea, Navicula cryptotenella and Seminavis strigosa. The most abundant species found in the Mae Hao Stream were Nitzschia palea, Seminavis strigosa, Surirella splendida and Sellaphora pupula. The most abundant species found in the Mae Luang Stream were Navicula cryptotenella, Diadesmis contenta, Karayevia oblongella and Achnanthes brevipes. Additionally, Amphipleura lindheimeri Grunow was identified as a newly recorded species for Thailand. This study revealed that the Ping River and Mae Hao Stream are similar bodies of water when compared with the Mae Luang Stream in terms of benthic diatom diversity and water quality. In addition, indicator species of tolerance and sensitivity to organic pollution were found. In conclusion, the areas of utilization were found to have affected the distribution of benthic diatoms in these water bodies, along with the water quality of the Ping River and its tributaries.
THE EFFECTS OF DRYING AND SHELLING ON ASPERGILLUS FLAWS INFECTION AND AFLATOXIN PRODUCTION OF MAIZE* DHARMAPUTRA, O.S.
BIOTROPIA - The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Biology No 10 (1997)
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Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (311.784 KB) | DOI: 10.11598/btb.1997.0.10.131

Abstract

The  effects of drying  and  shelling on  Aspergillus  fla\-us  infection  and  aflatoxin  production  of maize  stored under laboratory conditions were investigated together with the intactness of grain and change of moisture content during the storage period. Fully matured maize var. Arjuna and CPI-2 were harvested at 90 and 97 days after planting, respectively, after which they were unhusked and divided into 4 pans. The 1st and the 2nd parts were sun dried up to 20^ moisture content (m.c.) and then shelled and re-dried up to 17 and 14% m.c.. respectively. The 3rd part was sun dried up to 17% m.c. and then shelled but not re-dned. The 4th pan was sun dried up to 17% m.c. and then shelled and re-dried up to 14% m.c. The maize was sun dried by spreading either the cobs or the kernels on the paved floor. The nail-down wood and mechanical sheller were used for shelling the maize. After drying and shelling, maize samples were stored in the jars which were covered with muslin cloth for 3 months under laboratory conditions. A. flavus was isolated using dilution method on Aspergillus Flavus and Parasiticus Agar (AFPA). The damaged kernel analysis was carried out at the beginning of storage to obtain the percentage of damaged kernel caused by shelling. The m.c. and aflatoxin were determined using oven and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) methods, respectively. The m.c. decreased at 1 month of storage and then it was almost constant at 2 and 3 months of storage. The percentage  of damaged kernels  of maize var. CPI-2 was  higher  than  those  of  var. Arjuna. The percentage  of damaged kernels of maize shelled at 20% m.c. was higher than that shelled at 17% m.c. The percentage of damaged kernels of maize shelled by mechanical sheller was higher than that shelled by nail-down wood.*Paper presented at the Symposium on Pest Management for Stored Food and Feed, 5 -7 September 1995 Bogor, Indonesia.

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